The Project Gutenberg EBook of Spanish Composition, by Edith J. Broomhall

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Title: Spanish Composition

Author: Edith J. Broomhall

Release Date: November 28, 2011 [EBook #38124]

Language: Spanish

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Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing Co.—Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.


This book aims to teach Spanish idiom. The greatest hindrance to the use of idiomatic Spanish lies in the failure to realize that common English words have various Spanish meanings.

To meet this difficulty, the notes and exercises of Spanish Composition are focused on the errors beginners most frequently make. For instance, attention is drawn to the fact that words like up, down, out, in, away are usually included in the Spanish verb, which is often entirely different from the English expression. Thus, while "to get" is obtener, "to get up" is levantarse.

Of course the treatment cannot be exhaustive, but enough examples are given to show the pupil the necessity of thinking before translating even the commonest words and phrases. The aim has been to give a simple and specific discussion of everyday expressions rather than to try to cover the entire field of Spanish idiom.

About two hundred and fifty quotations from famous Spanish authors illustrate the various idioms and acquaint the learner with the great names of Spanish literature.

I wish to express my hearty thanks to Dr. Harry Kurz of Carleton College, and to my colleagues in the Minneapolis High Schools, Señor Fernando García and Señor Julius Arrieta, who have read the work either in manuscript or in proof.

Edith J. Broomhall.

    Central High School,
Minneapolis, Minnesota.

          January, 1921.

LESSON I. English to be1
LESSON II. The verb to ask4
English for5
LESSON III. The verb to have7
English to be to8
LESSON IV. English since10
The verb to go10
LESSON V. English long13
The word before14
The verb to know14
LESSON VI. English to get16
LESSON VII. Review exercises19
LESSON VIII. The verb to look or look at20
English little20
English there21
LESSON IX. The verb to grow23
The word just23
LESSON X. English after26
The verb to help27
LESSON XI. English here29
English well29
The verb to hold30
LESSON XII. The adverb so32
English to keep33
LESSON XIII. Review exercises35
LESSON XIV. English to leave37
To let38
LESSON XV. English now40
English about41
To be about to41
The verb to feel41
LESSON XVI. English will43
The word all43
LESSON XVII. The word way46
The adjective hard47
The verb to give47
LESSON XVIII. The verb to think49
The verb to make49
LESSON XIX. The verb to miss52
Emphasis in Spanish52
LESSON XX. Review exercises55
LESSON XXI. English time57
The verb to like58
LESSON XXII. Very as an adverb60
The verb to play61
The verb to need61
LESSON XXIII. The verb to please63
The verb to mean64
LESSON XXIV. The word only66
Alone, single67
The verb to hear67
LESSON XXV. English right69
English must70
LESSON XXVI. The verb to appear72
The verb to succeed72
The word even73
LESSON XXVII. Review exercises75
LESSON XXVIII. The verb to sit77
To stand77
English corner78
LESSON XXIX. English self80
The verb to tell81
LESSON XXX. To save83
To see83
LESSON XXXI. The word as86
LESSON XXXII. The verb to want89
Either, or89
LESSON XXXIII. The verb to wonder92
The one93
LESSON XXXIV. Review exercises95
LESSON XXXV. The verb to take97
LESSON XXXVI. The word ever100
The verb to pass100
The verb to pay or pay for101
LESSON XXXVII. The verb to turn103
LESSON XXXVIII. English can and could106
To ring107
English but107
LESSON XXXIX. The verb to put109
LESSON XL. To strike112
Spanish vez meaning time112
The verb to start113
LESSON XLI. The verb to do115
Adverbial expressions115
LESSON XLII. Review exercises118
CervantesDon Quijote
EchegarayEl Poder de la Impotencia, Siemore en Ridículo, El Hijo de Don Juan
Gil y ZárateGuzmán el Bueno
CastelarRecuerdos y Esperanzas
AlarcónEl Capitán Veneno, Short Stories
Pérez GaldósElectra, Celia en los Infiernos
Pardo BazánLa Piedra Angular, Short Stories
ValeraPepita Jiménez
BenaventeLa Princesa Bebé, La Malquerida, El Collar de Estrellas
Palacio ValdésJosé, La Hermana San Sulpicio
Eduardo MarquinaEl Rey Trovador
Martínez SierraTeatro de Ensueño
Los QuinteroMalvaloca, Doña Clarines, Manana de Sol, Los Galeotes
De LarraPartir a Tiempo
Blasco IbañezLos Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipse
José MármolAmalia
Ramos CarriónZaragüeta, La Muela del Juicio



El trabajo es buen compañero de la esperanza.[1]

1. English to be is generally translated into Spanish by ser or estar, the former with the general idea of permanency, the latter indicating temporary state. Location is always expressed by estar.

I, who was white, am also brown, because the sun has kissed me.

Yo, que era blanca, estoy también morena, porque el sol me ha besado.—MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

(a) In expressions referring to the weather to be is rendered by hacer, to make, the descriptive adjective becoming in Spanish a noun of corresponding meaning.

It was suffocatingly hot.

Hacía un calor sofocante.PALACIO VALDÉS.

It was very cold in the city to-day.

Hacía mucho frío hoy en la ciudad.

Note.—In all such expressions very must be translated mucho, since calor, frío, etc., are nouns.

(b) When used with a predicate adjective indicating mental or physical state, to be is translated by tener, the adjective changing to a noun of corresponding meaning.

The commonest of these expressions are to be hungry, thirsty, hot, cold, sleepy, afraid, right, careful, jealous, which are rendered tener hambre, sed, calor, frío, sueño, miedo, razón, cuidado, celos.

Uncle is right. That can't hurt him.

Tiene razón el tío. Eso no puede hacerle mal.—RAMOS CARRIÓN.

While I am so cold I don't want to go out.

Mientras tengo tanto frío no quiero salir.

I wasn't hungry but I was very sleepy.

No tenía hambre pero tenía mucho sueño.

Note.—In all similar expressions so is rendered tanto. Cf. note to (a) above.

(c) Many phrases consisting of the verb to be and an adjective denoting age or dimension are translated by tener and a noun. Such are to be old, wide, long, high, etc., rendered tener edad, anchura, longitud, altitud. Note also to be to blame, one's fault, tener la culpa; to be successful, tener éxito.

How old are these children?

¿Qué edad tienen estos niños?

The ribbon is two inches wide.

La cinta tiene dos pulgadas de anchura.

(d) To be at meaning to attend is translated asistir a.

There were not many at the meeting last night.

No asistían muchos a la reunión de anoche.

(e) To be worth is translated valer. To be worth while is valer la pena.

I don't know how much it is and it isn't worth while to ask.

No sé cuanto vale y no vale la pena de preguntar.


(a) 1. Hacía tanto calor que no podíamos dormir aunque teníamos mucho sueño. 2. Ya no tenemos miedo de nada. 3. Dice que tiene mucho frío. 4. Nos preguntaron si teníamos hambre. 5. Usted cree que este hombre tiene razón. Pues yo creo que no la tiene. 6. La mesa tiene cuatro pies de longitud y tres de anchura. 7. Yo no tengo la culpa de que no asistieron al teatro anoche. 8. Dígale que tendré mucho gusto en aceptar su amable invitación y asistir al concierto. 9. Ha hecho tanto frío hoy como si fuéramos en el mes de diciembre. 10. Estoy seguro de que usted tendrá mucho éxito.

(b) 1. Don't be afraid of the dog. He will not bite you. 2. How wide is this river? 3. If you are so hungry, why don't you eat? 4. Is it my fault that they are not here yet? 5. It is too cold in this room. Close the door. 6. The living-room is longer than the dining-room, but it is not so wide. 7. I don't feel like (am not desirous of) studying to-night. 8. I wasn't at school the day that the President visited it. 9. I gave him the money although I knew that the thing wasn't worth it. 10. It is cool to-day. It was so warm yesterday.


El día es para trabajar, por eso hay luz.[2]
Tomayo y Baus.

3. The verb to ask has five common translations. Meaning to question or to inquire it is rendered preguntar.

"Are you asleep, Captain?" the widow asked, greatly alarmed.

¿Duerme Vd., Capitán?—le preguntó muy alarmada la viuda.PEDRO DE ALARCÓN.

A girl came to the door asking for him.

Vino a la puerta una muchacha preguntando por él.—LOS QUINTERO.

(a) To ask for, beg, is translated pedir a.

He had slipped into the kitchen to ask the cook for something to eat.

Se había deslizado en la cocina para pedir algo que comer a la cocinera.—BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

Note.—With pedir the thing asked for is the direct object, the person of whom it is asked is the indirect, and is introduced by a. Cf. English, "We begged a dollar from father."

(b) To ask in the sense of to request is rendered by pedir or rogar, the latter being the more formal. Both verbs require the subjunctive in the dependent verb.

I asked the children not to make so much noise.

Pedí a los niños que no hiciesen tanto ruido.

I asked Mr. Blanco to come and see me.

Le rogué al señor Blanco que me viniese a ver (a visitar).

(c) To ask, invite is rendered convidar or invitar.

They have asked us to dinner.

Nos han convidado (invitado) a comer con ellos.

(d) To ask questions is rendered hacer preguntas.

And finally he asked himself the same question, wondering that it had not occurred to him before.

Y por fin se hizo la misma pregunta, extrañando que no se le hubiera ocurrido antes la idea.—BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

4. English for as a preposition is rendered by para or por. It is omitted before a non-emphatic personal pronoun object and after many verbs.

He bought it for me yesterday.

Me lo compró ayer.

He bought it for me (for my sake).

Lo compró por mí.

Wait for me.


Ask for it.


Look for them.


(a) For is rendered para when it expresses destination, purpose, use, future time, and to introduce a qualifying phrase.

This is the train for Madrid.

Este es el tren para Madrid.

She has enough money for her clothes.

Tiene bastante dinero para sus vestidos (prendas de vestir).

This is a machine for cutting leather.

Ésta es una máquina para cortar cuero.

I have an appointment for to-morrow.

Tengo cita para mañana.

She plays the piano well for her age.

Toca el piano bien para su edad.

(b) Expressing exchange, cause, motive, or duration of time, for is rendered por.

I gave him twenty-five dollars for his bicycle.

Le dí veinticinco duros por su bicicleta.

For months at a time we did not see him.

Por meses enteros no le habíamos visto.

They set fire to the house for fun.

Por burla pegaron fuego a la casa.

We could not see the house for the smoke.

No podíamos ver la casa por el humo.


(a) 1. La señora pregunta por la señorita. 2. Ruéguele que me lo mande. 3. Pídame Vd. todo lo que quiera. 4. ¿Cuándo parte Vd. para Europa? 5. Para su edad es un muchacho muy intelligente. 6. No sé contestar a todas las preguntas que me hacen estos chicos. 7. Le dí mi gramática española por su libro de lectura. 8. Para el almuerzo he comprado tocino. 9. Lo hace todo por sus hermanos y no saben agradecérselo. 10. Murió por la patria como yo muriera por ella.

(b) 1. I shall ask them to come and see me in the country. 2. I promised my mother that I would ask you for some of your beautiful roses. 3. Ask the children if they are hungry. 4. I will ask his mother to ask him for it. 5. Shall we ask them to dinner for the day after to-morrow? 6. Will you wait for me while I look for it? (For will you say Quiere Vd.) 7. This is the book father bought for me in London. 8. It is a beautiful book for the price. 9. If it wasn't for the dust, we could see the horses. 10. Some friends have asked me to go to the theater with them this evening. 11. In Spanish they call a typewriter a "machine for writing." 12. They will sing for joy when they receive this news.


Cada uno es como Dios le ha criado.[3]
Pedro de Alarcón.

6. The verb to have denoting possession is rendered tener. With auxiliary force it is haber.

I used to have it, but I have it no longer.

Lo tenía sí, pero ya no lo tengo más.

He says he has sold it, but I don't know who has bought it.

Dice que lo ha vendido, pero no sé quien lo ha comprado.

(a) To have meaning to cause to be done or made, let, is rendered by hacer followed (1) by a direct infinitive, or (2) by que with the subjunctive of indirect command.

Have them get the trunks down at once.

Hágales bajar los baúles en seguida or Haga Vd. que bajen los baúles.

I like this book very much. I will have the children read it.

Me gusta mucho este libro. Haré que lo lean los niños.

He has had a new house built for his newly married daughter.

Ha hecho construir una nueva casa para su hija recién casada.

(b) To have to denoting necessity or compulsion is translated tener que, which is followed by the infinitive.

It is raining torrents. We shall have to stay here till it stops.

Llueve a cántaros. Tendremos que quedarnos aquí hasta que deje de llover.

I can't go with you because I have to study some lessons.

No puedo acompañarle porque tengo que estudiar unas lecciones.

(c) To have on, be wearing, is rendered tener puesto, or by llevar or vestir. Puesto is an adjective and agrees in gender and number with the thing worn.

She has on a simple dress and over her shoulders a wide black lace scarf.

Viste un traje sencillo y trae sobre los hombros un amplio velo negro de encaje.—LOS QUINTERO.

They all had their hats on when they came out.

Al salir todos tenían puestos los sombreros.

7. English to be to expressing futurity coupled with a vague necessity is rendered haber de followed by the infinitive.

I have read in the papers that the president is to visit the city.

He leído en los diarios que el presidente ha de visitar la ciudad.

The teacher told us that we were to finish that lesson.

El maestro nos dijo que hubiéramos de acabar aquella lección.


(a) 1. Aquel día había de ser glorioso para el país. 2. Yo quiero que nadie tenga noticia de nuestra conferencia. 3. Quien lo haya quebrado tendrá que remendarlo. 4. Me había ido, pero he vuelto porque tengo que hablarle a Vd. 5. Pues ya no has de ver más a Paquita. Ella se casa. 6. Lo compré esta mañana y han de entregármelo mañana. 7. Tengo que subir al palomar para dar de comer a mis palomitas. 8. Ha mandado hacer un vestido nuevo para su hijita. 9. Celebro tener el gusto de conocer a Vd. 10. Tengo una viva satisfacción en haber conocido a Vd. 11. Dígales Vd. que me traigan pronto lo que les he pedido. 12. Tendrán que acostarse en cuanto lleguen.

(b) 1. This strap is good for nothing (worth nothing). I had it in my hand and it broke. 2. The trunks will have to be at the station at three o'clock. 3. What dress are you going to wear on the train? The one that I have on. 4. Have a new strap made when you return. 5. We are to wait for them here. They have gone to look for the others. 6. The teacher had the pupil read the lesson aloud. 7. You will have to go with us because we don't know the way. 8. She had on a pair of white gloves that I had given her. 9. I am to tell her that he has broken the whip that she had made for him for his birthday. 10. I will have the letter written at once.


Puesto que todo pasa, gocémoslo todo mientras vive.[4]

9. The English since as a preposition is translated desde; as an adverb it is rendered desde entonces or desde aquel tiempo, literally, since then and since that time. As a conjunction of time it is desde que, and as a conjunction of cause it is ya que, puesto que, or visto que (cf. English seeing that).

I have not seen him since yesterday.

No le he visto desde ayer.

He left the city last year and I have not seen him since.

Partió de la ciudad el año pasado y no le he visto desde entonces.

I have not seen him since he left the city.

No le he visto desde que partió de la ciudad.

I will speak to him once more since you desire it.

Le hablaré una vez más ya que Vd. lo desea.—LOS QUINTERO.

10. The verb to go is ir or irse, the reflexive form being used when to be is not followed by a complementary infinitive or by a prepositional phrase denoting direction. To go away may be translated irse, marcharse, or partir.

Now I am going to explain it to you.

Ya se lo voy a explicar.

I am going now. Do you want to go with me?

Ya me voy. ¿Quiere Vd. acompañarme?

We are going to the country to spend a few days.

Vamos al campo a pasar unos pocos días.

(a) To go in or into, up, down, through, are translated entrar (en), subir, bajar, pasar por, the preposition being included in the meaning of the verb except that en and por are used with entrar and pasar when the object of the verb is expressed.

Did you go into the house? Yes, we went in. We also went upstairs and went through all the rooms.

¿Entraron Vds. en la casa? Sí, entramos. También subimos la escalera y pasamos por todas las habitaciones.

(b) To go out has two translations, salir, to leave, and apagarse, to be extinguished.

They have all gone out to take a walk.

Todos han salido a dar un paseo.

All of a sudden all the lights in the house went out.

De repente se apagaron todas las luces en la casa.

(c) To go on, continue, is rendered continuar or seguir.

He went on talking as if he had not seen me.

Siguió (continuó) hablando como si no me hubiera visto.

(d) To go to bed is rendered acostarse; to go to sleep, dormirse.

I can't go to sleep when I go to bed so early.

No puedo dormirme cuando me acuesto tan temprano.

Many other translations of to go may be obtained by paraphrasing. So, to go back, return, volver; to go into, investigate, investigar; to go by, judge by, juzgar por, etc.


(a) 1. Me voy un rato con este amigo. 2. Ya se apagó el fuego. 3. Todos quedaron menos él, que se fué en seguida. 4. Puesto que llueve a cántaros no salimos esta mañana. 5. Ya es hora de volver, ¿no? 6. Nos iremos mañana si hace buen tiempo. 7. No hemos recibido noticias de ellos desde que se fueron. 8. Entonces vimos que los niños se habían dormido. 9. Siguen riendo y charlando mientras esperan la llegada de los otros. 10. Tráeme acá un fósforo. Se me ha apagado la lámpara.

(b) 1. Since I can't come to see you, I ask you to come to see me. 2. I lent him my fountain pen last week and I have not seen it since. 3. I am sleepy, but I can't go to sleep. 4. Go back at once! The others have all gone. 5. Don't go out until you see them go in. 6. It is very cold in this room since the fire went out. 7. I shall go on making preparations for their visit. 8. It was so warm in the room that we almost went to sleep. 9. He is ill and has had to go to bed. He hasn't been well since he came home. 10. Are you going now? Well, I will go with you.


Mientras uno es joven, siempre hay esperanza de mejorar la fortuna.[5]—PALACIO VALDÉS.

12. English long is usually rendered largo, but in expressions of time it is often translated mucho.

This is the longest street in the city. We lived here for a long time.

Esta es la calle más larga de la ciudad. Vivimos aquí por mucho tiempo.

I have not seen them for a long time.

No los he visto desde hace mucho tiempo.

Note.—When a phrase expressing duration of time introduced by for is equivalent to since ... ago, for is translated desde hace.

(a) The phrase to be long (in), followed by a verbal in -ing, expressed or understood, is rendered tardar (en), followed by an infinitive expressed or understood.

Have patience! You will not be long in learning how to do it.

¡Ten paciencia! No tardarás en aprender a hacerlo.

You go now. I will follow.—All right, but don't be long.

Vete ahora. Yo te seguiré.—Bueno, pero no tardes.


(b) Tardar en may also be used to translate the expression before long.

They will be back before long.

No tardarán en volver.

(c) The adverbial phrases no longer, any longer are translated ya no.

I wonder why they are so long. I can't wait any longer.

¿Por qué tardarán tanto? Ya no puedo esperar más.

(d) The conjunctive phrase as long as is rendered mientras.

As long as it was raining we could not go out.

Mientras llovía no podíamos salir.

13. The word before as an adverb is rendered antes; as a conjunction, antes que; as a preposition of time, antes de; as a preposition of place, it is rendered delante de or ante, the latter being used especially with the meaning of in the presence of.

I had never done that before.

No había hecho eso antes.

Before he went away he said that he would be back before long.

Antes que se fué me dijo que no tardaría en volver.

Before taking it you ought to have spoken to me.

Antes de cogerla debió usted hablar conmigo.


He wanted to appear before them as a millionaire.

Quería presentarse delante de ellos como millonario.


They look at the gypsy who stops before them.

Miran al húngaro que se para ante ellos.—MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

Note.Antes also translates English formerly.

14. The verb to know, meaning to be acquainted with, is conocer; otherwise to know and to know how are rendered saber.

I know the family, but I don't know where they live.

Conozco a la familia, pero no sé donde viven.

I know how to sew, I know how to cook, I know how to wash clothes.

Yo sé coser, yo sé guisar, yo sé lavar la ropa.—LOS QUINTERO.

Note.—Conocer also translates English to make the acquaintance of.


(a) 1. No sé como he vivido tanto tiempo con ellos. 2. ¡Bien ha tardado Vd. esta noche! 3. ¿Cuánto tiempo espera Vd. pasar aquí? 4. Dígales que yo quiero verlas antes que salgan. 5. No sé leer el español pero conozco las obras de Benavente en traducción. 6. No tardamos en saber lo que había hecho. 7. Antes de escribir los ejercicios tenemos que estudiar las reglas. 8. Antes era rico, ya no lo es. 9. En el abecedario viene la a ante la be. 10. Puesto que no puedo quedarme más tiempo, tendrá Vd. que acabarlo solo.

(b) 1. Do you know the works of Blasco Ibáñez? 2. How long have you been here? 3. I don't know how to describe it to you. 4. I don't know how long he has been ill. 5. Before I speak I want to know how much you know. 6. Do you know this song? Yes, but I don't know how to sing it. 7. Before buying the house he told me that he had known the owner for a long time. 8. Ask him if he knows who has lived in it since. 9. I knew him before he went to live there. 10. I'm sure I shall see him before long.


Ya ves que no hay que fiar de sueños.[6]

16. The English to get has so many different translations in Spanish that it is always advisable to paraphrase it before translating. So: I am going to get (buy) some bread. We are going to get (fetch or bring) our books. He gets (receives) his money here. The lion got out (escaped). We got back (arrived, returned) this morning. It gets (grows, becomes) dark early. In such examples as the last, however, the alternatives are also verbs that present some difficulty in translations: and many of the compounds of get and a preposition must be learned literally.

He got (obtained) what he wanted.

Obtuvo lo que quería.

There is no more sugar. I shall have to go and get some.

No hay más azúcar. Tendré que ir a comprar más.

Have you sent the boy to get the car?

¿Ha mandado usted al mozo a traer el automóvil?

I get a letter from home every Tuesday.

Recibo carta de casa todos los martes.

There was a fire at the Zoölogical Gardens yesterday and a lion got out (away).

Hubo incendio en los jardines zoológicos ayer y se escapó un león.

(a) To get meaning to grow or become is translated ponerse or hacerse, the former indicating a temporary change of state, the latter a more permanent one.

She gets very cross if she has to wait for us.

Se pone muy enojada (enfadada) si tiene que esperarnos.

He got rich quickly, but his methods couldn't be admired.

Se hizo rico pronto, pero sus métodos no podían admirarse.

(b) To get along with, speaking of persons, may be rendered entenderse con, or congeniar con: when the object is a thing, the translation is servirse de. To get along without is translated pasarse sin.

He doesn't get along very well with his oldest brother.

No se entiende muy bien con su hermano mayor.

I shall have to get along with this knife since there is no other.

Tendré que servirme de este cuchillo puesto que no hay otro.

I get along without a laundress now that my daughter is at home.

Yo me paso sin lavandera ya que está en casa mi hija.

(c) To get into and out of vehicles are rendered subir a and bajar de.

They get out of one automobile and into another.

Bajaron de un automóvil y subieron a otro.

(d) To get out of the way may be rendered apartarse del camino or quitarse de en medio.

You know that to me she is always at home. Get out of the way!

Sabe Vd. que para mí siempre está. ¡Quítese de en medio!


(e) To get up, rise, is rendered levantárse or ponerse de pie.

I got up very, very early this morning.

Esta mañana me levanté muy de madrugada.

When the teacher spoke to the pupil the latter got up.

Cuando habló el maestro al discípulo se puso de pie éste.


(a) 1. El coche se detuvo delante de la puerta y bajaron dos señores. 2. Primero tenemos que apartar del camino este montón de piedras. 3. Se levantó Vd. tarde hoy. 4. Queremos deshacernos de nuestro viejo automóvil. 5. Los tejados se ponen blancos. 6. Las abejas sacan la miel de las flores. 7. No se sabe como han logrado entrar en la casa los ladrones. 8. Aunque cerramos la puerta con llave lograron salir. 9. Le he mandado a traerme otro cuchillo, porque éste no corta. 10. Baja de este muro en seguida si no quieres caer.

(b) 1. The fruit is getting ripe now. 2. You ought to get rid of the old house before you buy a new one. 3. We shall have to get up early to catch that train. 4. Mother is in the kitchen getting dinner. 5. How dark the sky is getting. I think there will be a storm. 6. As I was getting up this morning my mother called to me and said, "Hurry up, John, I want you to go and get some milk for breakfast." 7. Since there is no ink we shall have to get along with pencils. 8. My parents do not like to get letters written in pencil. 9. That company gets out beautiful illustrated books. 10. He has been ill and has not been able to get out for a long time.


Vale más una sola cosa buena que muchas medianas.[7]
Pérez Galdós.


(a) 1. We must not remain longer in this house. 2. I must go and I will go. But, where? Who knows? 3. If you want to know, ask her. 4. He is here again and he knows that we are in this house. 5. Man, you are right. You must be right sometimes. 6. I am not to blame because he is not here. 7. These are for me, but I will give you these for those. 8. You don't know what you are asking for. 9. He is hungry and cold, but not ashamed. 10. Send the maid to get some vegetables.

(b) 1. Do you know how old he is? 2. How deep is this well? 3. It is not his fault that he has not been successful. 4. Ask them if they are hungry? 5. Father has gone out for a lamp because all the electric lights have gone out. 6. We shall get there before long. 7. Have you ever been here before? Yes, but not for a long time. 8. Mother's going to get me a new hat. 9. This store always closes for an hour at noon. 10. It's a pity this young man does not get along better with his parents. 11. Before you go, go and ask John if he got the tickets for to-night.


¡Mira las estrellas! Cuentan cuentos dulces las estrellas y hacen compañía.[8]—MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

19. The verb to look or look at is rendered mirar, the at remaining untranslated.

Looking through the window, I saw that my friend was looking at the flowers.

Mirando por la ventana, vi que mi amiga miraba las flores.

(a) To look (as if) is rendered parecer. The impersonal it looks as if may be translated según parece, or por lo visto.

You look very tired. It looks as if you had been working too hard.

Parece Vd. muy cansada. Ha trabajado Vd. demasiado según parece.

It looks as if he had determined to stop our talking.

Parece que se ha propuesto impedirnos hablar.—LOS QUINTERO.

(b) To look for or look up is translated buscar.

I don't know where they went. For my part I'm not looking for them.

Yo no sé a donde iban. Por mi parte no los busco.—JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

20. English little as an adjective of size is rendered pequeño, chico, or menudo.

We have just rented that little house across the street.

Acabamos de alquilar esa casa pequeña al otro lado de la calle.

Are the little folks coming too?

¿Vienen también la gente menuda?

(a) Denoting quantity little is rendered poco.

Why, you went to bed a little after ten!

¡Si te acostaste a poco más de las diez!—RAMOS CARRIÓN.

It is a matter of little importance.

Es asunto de poca importancia.

(b) As an adverb of degree little is rendered poco, algo, or un tanto.

The price is a little high, isn't it? A little, yes.

Es algo subido el precio, ¿no? Un tanto, si.

21. English there as an adverb is translated ahí, allí, or allá, the last being the form used with verbs of motion. Used with a verb that doesn't express motion, allá indicates approximate situation while allí always indicates definite situation.

I wonder where my hat can be. I left it there on the table.

¿Dónde estará mi sombrero? Lo dejé allí en la mesa.

I don't know where he has gone, but he went over there.

No se adónde habrá ido, pero se fué por allá.

(a) There is, there was, there will be, etc., are translated by the various tenses of haber, the verb always being in the singular.

There is one here now. There were two before.

Hay uno aquí ahora. Antes había dos.

There are absurdities in the spiritual life as in the natural.

Hay absurdos en la vida del espíritu como en la naturaleza.


(b) There as an exclamatory word has many renderings which can best be learned by observation. Note the following examples.

There, there, don't cry! You'll wake mother.

¡Vamos, vamos, no llores! Despertarás a la madre.

There! I told you you would break it.

¡Ya se ve! Te dije que ibas a quebrarlo.

There's a beautiful house!

¡Vaya una casa hermosa!


(a) 1. Dígale que yo voy allá en seguida. 2. ¡Vaya una muchacha guapa! ¿Quién es? 3. Parece que nunca van a terminar. 4. Habrá reunión allí mañana por la mañana. 5. Es muy chico. Me gustaría más si fuese un tantito más grande. 6. Parece que va a llover. Tal vez habrá tempestad. 7. Los chicos quieren ir a la playa, pero ya es un poco tarde para eso. 8. He perdido un guante. ¿Quieres volver a buscármelo? 9. ¡Mire Vd. cuánta gente hay en la calle! 10. Parece más joven, pero la verdad es que tiene algo más edad que yo.

(b) 1. Were you there when the accident occurred? 2. There were ten boys in the class. How many are there in your class? 3. Oh, look! There goes a deer. There's a pretty little animal! 4. We shall be there for an hour. We went there last year, too. 5. How does it look to you? I haven't looked at it well yet. 6. I need a little more milk. Who will go and get me some? 7. The little money that I had was not sufficient. 8. There had been a terrible storm and the little city had suffered not a little damage. 9. Look up these words in the dictionary. 10. Look out! (¡Cuidado!) There comes an automobile. There's a reckless driver (for you)!


Las frutas se comen. Las flores se huelen, nada más.[9]

23. The verb to grow, meaning to cultivate or be cultivated, is translated cultivar or cultivarse; meaning to increase in size it is crecer or aumentarse; meaning to become it is rendered ponerse or hacerse, the first expressing temporary, the second approximately permanent, change. To grow up is translated criarse.

In the Argentine Republic they grow much wheat.

En la República Argentina cultivan (se cultiva) mucho trigo.

Why! How this child has grown!

¡Vaya, que ha crecido este niño!

The number grows year by year.

El número se aumenta de año en año.

She must be ill. She is growing thinner day by day.

Debe estar mala. Se pone más delgada de día en día.

By means of gymnastic exercises he has grown very strong.

Por medio de ejercicios gimnásticos se ha hecho muy fuerte.

This child grew up with her mother until she was five years old.

Esta niña se crió junto a su madre hasta tener cinco años.


24. The word just has numerous renderings in Spanish. As an adjective it is justo.

Since our cause is just, we shall win.

Puesto que es justa nuestra causa, venceremos.

(a) Meaning only it may be translated by the adverb sólo, or by the phrases nada más or no ... más que (de before numerals). Nada más is placed at the end of the sentence.

There were just twenty persons present.

Asistieron sólo veinte personas (no más de veinte personas; veinte personas nada más).

How much do you want? I have just a pound.

¿Cuánto quiere usted? No tengo más que una libra.

Note.—If this sentence meant exactly a pound, the translation would be una libra justa; so always when just equals exactly.

We just came to look for a pencil and paper for Patros.

No venimos más que a buscar lápiz y papel para Patros.


For you must know, my son, that the dreaming of the old is just remembering.

Porque has de saber, hijo mío, que el soñar de los viejos es sólo recordar.—MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

It was just the door closing.

Era la puerta que se cerraba, nada más.

(b) Meaning at this or that moment, just is translated en este or ese mismo momento; or it may be implied in the present or imperfect tenses.

The door is just closing.Se cierra la puerta.
The door was just closing.      Se cerraba la puerta.

The phrase en este mismo momento makes the just more emphatic.

(c) In expressions of time of day just is rendered en punto; just now is hace poco or hace un ratito, referring to past time, ahora or al momento when present time is understood; just yet is rendered todavía.

What time is it? It is just eight o'clock.

¿Qué hora es? Son las ocho en punto.

I saw them just now and they said they were coming.

Los vi hace poco y dijeron que iban a venir.

I'm sorry I can't go with you, but I'm very busy just now.

Siento no poder acompañarle, pero al momento estoy muy ocupado.

It isn't ready just yet. I will call you as soon as it is.

No está listo todavía. Le llamaré en cuanto lo esté.

(d) Have just and had just with a past participle are translated by the present and imperfect of the verb acabar followed by de and the infinitive of the verb that in English is in the participle.

He has just arrived.      He had just gone.
Acaba de llegar.      Acababa de marcharse.


(a) 1. Hacemos este viaje sólo por placer. 2. El sol acababa de ponerse. 3. No podía soportar que su única hija se criase como un muchacho. 4. Hablábamos de la posibilidad de su llegada, nada más. 5. ¡Ya se ve! Crióse sin madre casi sin nodriza. 6. Esto ocurrió hace un año. No, hace tres meses justos. 7. Un momento nada más y sales diciéndoles que tienes que hacer en la casa. 8. El tabaco no se cultiva en este estado. 9. Estos niños crecen como la mala hierba. 10. Son las ocho en punto y dicen que acaban de llegar las distinguidas visitas.

(b) 1. I am just going. Do you want to go with me? 2. We grow just flowers in our garden. 3. What are you doing? I'm just reading. 4. They have just come in and they say it is just beginning to rain. 5. When we got there he had just begun to speak. 6. That is just what I was going to say. 7. It was growing darker and we could only just see. 8. This is just for the little girls. 9. How you have grown! The other day you were just a little boy. 10. He is growing weaker every day.


En Dios confía quien adora la verdad.[10]

26. English after as a preposition of time is rendered después de; as a preposition of place or direction it is tras or en pos de; as a conjunction it is después que.

And so the boats kept on appearing one after the other.

Y así fueron apareciendo unas tras otras las lanchas.


The boats were disappearing one after the other behind the cape.

Las lanchas se fueron ocultando una en pos de otra detrás del cabo.—PALACIO VALDÉS.

We will help you after dinner.

Le ayudaremos después de la comida.

After we have finished, we will go.

Después que hayamos acabado, nos iremos.

(a) Afterwards is después. The day after to-morrow is pasado mañana.

Afterwards I found out that he was earning his living as a public letter writer.

Después supe que ganaba la vida trabajando de memorialista.


I have to see them the day after to-morrow.

Tengo que verlos pasado mañana.

27. The verb to help meaning to assist, aid, is rendered ayudar or asistir.

I have so much to do and nobody wants to help me.

Tengo tanto que hacer y nadie quiere ayudarme.

(a) To help in the sense of to prevent, avoid, is rendered evitar.

I couldn't help his doing it, but he couldn't help it either.

Yo no podía evitar que él lo hiciese, pero él no podía evitarlo tampoco.

(b) Can't help and couldn't help, followed by an unmodified present participle, are rendered by the present and the imperfect of the verb poder and the phrase menos de with the infinitive. Otherwise, I can't help, couldn't help, etc., may be rendered Yo no tengo (tenía) la culpa de que.

I can't help confessing that I am sorry.

No puedo menos de confesar que lo siento.—PALACIO VALDÉS.

I couldn't help knowing that you were talking of us.

No podía menos de saber que Vd. hablaba de nosotros.

Note.—When the verbal in -ing is modified by a possessive, translate as in (a).

(c) It can't be helped is translated no hay remedio.

I thought it could be avoided, but now it can't be helped.

Creí que podría evitarse, pero ya no hay remedio.



(a) 1. Vaya a buscarla después de comer. 2. No querría hacerlo, pero no había otro remedio. 3. Quisiera dejarlo para después que oscurezca. 4. Después de acabar Vd. con ese libro démelo a mí. 5. La ayudaba, sí, pero no podía menos de creer que lo hacía sin querer. 6. No me gusta dejarlo hacer por manos ajenas, pero no hay remedio. 7. Después que habíamos caminado dos horas, los alcanzamos. 8. No puedo menos de querer que vengan. 9. Estaba todavía muy débil y teníamos que asistirle cuando querría andar. 10. Los niños llegan pasado mañana y los padres unos días después.

(b) 1. It isn't ready yet, but I can't help it. 2. Do you want me to help you? 3. I can't help feeling sorry that they have done that. 4. We knew that it couldn't be helped. 5. I have just seen him, and I can't help thinking that he must be ill. 6. She couldn't help hoping that she would get what she wanted. 7. After a short time he could walk without our help. 8. The dog ran after his master after he succeeded in getting out of the house. 9. After the rain had ceased they went out and we did not see them afterwards. 10. He knows it is not well done, but he says he can't help it.


Cuando uno no quiere, dos no riñen.[11]
Tomayo y Baus.

29. English here is rendered aquí denoting place where and acá with a verb of motion.

Here lived a member of my husband's family.

Aquí habitaba un individuo de la familia de mi esposo.


Go and tell him to please come here.

Ve y dile que tenga la bondad de venir acá.—LOS QUINTERO.

Note.Aquí is sometimes found with verbs of motion, but acá is the commoner form.

(a) Here accompanying the offer of something may be rendered by the imperative of tomar, to take, or by aquí with the verb tener.

Haven't you a pencil? Well, here. I have two.

¿No tiene usted lápiz? Pues, tome. Yo tengo dos.

Here's the money they gave me for you.

Aquí tiene usted el dinero que me dieron para usted.

(b) To be here in the sense of to arrive is translated llegar.

They will be here in time according to what they write me.

Llegarán a tiempo según me escriben.

30. English well as an adverb is translated bien; as an adjective it is bueno. As an introductory word having no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence it is rendered bien, bueno, or pues. With exclamatory force it may be rendered ¡vaya! or ¡toma!

It is very well made, isn't it?

Está muy bien hecho, ¿no?

He must stay here until he gets well.

Debe quedar aquí hasta que se ponga bueno.

Well, that's done. And now what else is there to do?

Bueno (bien), ya está hecho eso. Y ahora, ¿qué más hay que hacer?

Well, I feel ill, very ill.

Pues yo me siento mal, muy mal.—RAMOS CARRIÓN.

Well! Here am I to get everybody out of difficulties.

¡Vaya! Aquí estoy yo para sacar de apuros a todo el mundo.


31. The verb to hold as a synonym of to have is translated tener; meaning to contain it is contener. When it indicates that a thing has a certain capacity it is translated caber en. In this last sense the English subject becomes in Spanish the object of the preposition en, while the English object becomes the subject of caber.

He held his hat in his hand all the time.

Tenía el sombrero en la mano todo el tiempo.

This box holds all that I want.

Este cajón contiene todo lo que yo necesito.

We shall have to get another sack. This one holds only a pound.

Tendremos que buscar otro saco. En éste cabe solo una libra.

Contiene solo una libra would mean there is only a pound in it.

Note.—A very common expression is no cabe duda, which translates there is no doubt.

(a) The phrase to hold out has many translations, according to its meanings as here illustrated.

He held out (offered) his hand to me.

Me ofreció la mano.

He held out his hand for the money.

Extendió la mano para el dinero.

He held out (persisted) for a week.

Se mantuvo firme por una semana.

The coffee held out (there was enough).

Hubo bastante cafe.


(a) 1. El vino acá en el tranvía. 2. Pues, que lo haga tan bien como yo lo he hecho. 3. No cabían en el barco más de cuatro personas. 4. Búsqueme un cesto más grande. En éste no caben las manzanas. 5. El cajón contenía frutas y dulces. 6. ¿Y la familia? Están todos buenos según me escriben. 7. Con tal que haya bastante harina, no nos falta más. 8. Está cansadísimo. No sé si se le mantendrán las fuerzas hasta que llegue a casa. 9. ¡Vaya! ¿Usted aquí? ¿Y desde cuándo?

(b) 1. This bottle will not hold all that ink. 2. Well, what shall I do with what is left? 3. Put it here and get another bottle. 4. New countries hold out better opportunities to young men than to old ones. 5. Well, everything is ready for them when they get here. 6. He held out the sack to show me what it held. 7. I can't help thinking that he is too young for the office that he holds. 8. How much is it? Well, here's the money. 9. How many books will this bookcase hold? 10. There is not the least doubt that they knew that the box held money.


Dios no hace las cosas a medias.[12]

33. The adverb so expressing manner is rendered así, thus; as an adverb of degree so is tan. So much and so many are rendered tanto, -a, tantos, -as, when used adjectively or pronominally. As an adverb so much is tanto.

And I am to live so, as long as I am alone.

Y así he de vivir mientras esté solo.—PÉREZ GALDÓS.

I didn't know that it was so hard to do that.

Yo no sabía que era tan difícil hacer eso.

That's why they make so many mistakes (are mistaken so many times).

De ahí que se equivoquen tantas veces.—LOS QUINTERO.

I don't need so much. You take what's left.

Yo no necesito tanto. Tome usted lo que sobra.

(a) Used in the manner of a neuter pronoun so is rendered lo.

I asked him to call them and he did so at once.

Le rogué los llamase y lo hizo en seguida.

(b) In such expressions as I think so, I believe so, he says so, where so stands for an affirmative clause, it is translated que sí.

Is it going to snow? John says so.

¿Va a nevar? Juan dice que sí.

"I think so," he said, taking the instruments from the man's hands.

Creo que sí, dijo, tomando los instrumentos de las manos del hombre.


(c) The conjunctive phrase and so is rendered y así when it is equal to and therefore. When it is equivalent to well, then, it is rendered conque.

We weren't busy, and so we could help them.

Nosotros no estábamos ocupados y así podíamos ayudarlos.

And so you say they are to be here at five o'clock?

Conque, ¿dice usted que han de estar aquí a las cinco?


34. English to keep in its simplest meaning of to retain is rendered guardar or quedarse con. It has many other meanings, most of which may be obtained by paraphrase. So: to keep (observe) a holiday; to keep quiet (be still, stop talking); to keep out (not to enter); to keep in (not to let go out); to keep on (to continue, or not to take off); to keep from (to hinder, prevent, abstain from).

Well, I'm going to keep what I have.

Pues, yo voy a quedarme con lo que tengo.

At home we keep all the national holidays.

En casa observamos todas las fiestas nacionales.

Well, I agree, and I keep on sacrificing myself.

Pues, me conformo, y sigo sacrificándome.—ECHEGARAY.

The noise of the street kept him from sleeping.

El ruido de la calle le impidió el dormir.—BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

Tell them to come back. I will keep them just a moment.

Dígales que vuelvan. Los detendré un momento, nada más.


(a) 1. Así es, por desgracia. No te espero hoy. 2. La cordera siguió corriendo y llegó a lo alto de las peñas. 3. Guardó un asiento vacío junto al suyo. 4. Ha retenido la mitad de lo que me debe. 5. Su enfermedad le impidió que adelantara en sus estudios. 6. Si todos nos mantenemos quietos, no sabrán que estámos aquí. 7. Yo le dije que callase, pero siguió hablando. 8. Conque, se marchan ustedes hoy ¿no?

(b) 1. I don't know why she wants so much to see me. 2. Of course if she wants to go, I can't keep her from it. 3. She keeps on writing to me, asking me not to keep it. 4. Has he kept back more than he should? They say so. 5. He always keeps out of the house when he sees that the maid has just cleaned the floors. 6. In Spain and South America they keep all the church holidays. 7. This lesson is not so hard (difficult). 8. If it keeps on raining, you must keep on your raincoats. 9. I tried to keep the children from making so much noise. 10. Keep them out of this room for just a few minutes.


Mi opulencia es la sencillez; mi lujo, la sobriedad; mi reposo, el trabajo.[13]—PÉREZ GALDÓS.


(a) 1. Ask as many questions as you want to. 2. I have not been so busy for a long time. 3. I asked the young lady how much the hat was. 4. Well, we will look for it here and if we can't find it we will send him to get another. 5. We had been gone for an hour when they got here. 6. This is a situation that cannot last longer. 7. You will get better. Why (si), you are better! 8. Did you know that man before? Yes, I made his acquaintance last year. 9. I have just seen your parents go in. It is just eight o'clock.

(b) 1. He can't help seeing that it is too large. 2. The poor girl looks ill. 3. I don't know how she has been able to work so long. 4. I am waiting for my brother; I can't get in till he comes because I have lost my key. 5. Ah, here he comes. I was just going to send some one to look for you. 6. Even the teacher couldn't help laughing. 7. I have not seen the sun since morning. I'm sure it will rain before night. 8. It is impossible to know how to speak a language well without practice. 9. Shall you be here when we get back? 10. If I can get him to lend me the money, I will buy it from (a) you.

(c) 1. How long do you think they will be able to hold out? 2. In her arms she held a pretty little girl. 3. I have only a very little, nevertheless this valise won't hold it. 4. This little basket just holds a dozen. 5. This pitcher holds just a quart. 6. Keep a place for me near you. 7. I asked him who said so. 8. I don't know what to do with so many books and still you keep on buying more. 9. Who says that? He says so. 10. Is he ready? He says so.


El hombre que se avergüenza de ser feliz debe andar en cuatro pies.[14]Tomayo y Baus.

37. English to leave has three principal translations. Meaning to depart it is rendered partir; meaning to go out of it is salir; and meaning to allow to remain it is dejar.

He left for London yesterday.

Partió para Londres ayer.

For two months I haven't been able to leave the house.

Hace dos meses que no puedo salir de la casa.


The train had left him in the East station.

El tren le había dejado en la estación del Este.


(a) In the sense of to let, dejar is used.

Leave the poor child alone! He's not bothering you.

¡Déjale al pobre niño! No te molesta a tí.

(b) To leave off in the sense of to stop is rendered dejar de or cesar de, followed by the infinitive.

He left off coming when he found out that he was not congenial to us.

Dejó de venir cuando supo que no nos era simpático.


(c) To have something left is translated quedar or sobrar.

I know you have no time left for social life.

Ya sé que no le sobra tiempo para la vida social.—PÉREZ GALDÓS.

I used to have a lot, but I have very little left now.

Antes tenía mucho, pero me queda muy poco ahora.

I gave him four, but he has only two left now.

Le dí cuatro, pero ya no le quedan más de dos.

Note.—In this construction notice that the English subject becomes the indirect object of the verbs quedar and sobrar, while the thing "left" is the subject. The Spanish says literally, to him are left only two. Note also the order: object, verb, subject.

38. To let, meaning to allow, is rendered dejar.

The poor woman has died of fatigue. Let her rest in peace.

La pobre mujer ha muerto de fatiga. Dejadla que descanse en paz.—MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

(a) When let is used with the third person in the sense of a command it is translated by que with the subjunctive. When the verb is in the first person plural, the que is omitted.

Let John take these letters to the post-office at once.

Que Juan lleve estas cartas al correo en seguida.

Let's go now. No, let us sit down here for a moment.

Vámonos ahora. No, sentémonos aquí por unos momentos.

(b) To let in, out, up, down, through are translated dejar entrar, salir, subir, bajar, pasar por.

Don't let that dog in. I have just put him out.

No dejes entrar a ese perro. Acabo de hacerle salir.

They couldn't open the door, but they let me in through the window.

No podían abrir la puerta, pero me dejaron entrar por la ventana.


(a) 1. Salga Vd. de la sala y no vuelva Vd. a entrar. 2. Si no han partido todavía, dígales que quiero verlos antes que se marchen. 3. No salimos de la casa antes que dejó de llover. 4. No sé si me dejarán acompañarla a usted. 5. Que vayan a traérmelo en seguida. 6. ¿Les sobrará mucho? Creo que sí. 7. Partimos mañana en el tren de la mañana. 8. Su madre no quiere dejarle acompañarnos. 9. Las mujeres dejaban sus ocupaciones de la casa y salían a las puertas. 10. Todavía me queda la pequeña casa que me dejó mi padre.

(b) 1. We will not let you leave until it leaves off raining. 2. They have all left their umbrellas at home. 3. When he had paid for his dinner he had two dollars left. 4. They left five minutes ago. 5. I have just one old umbrella left for myself. 6. Let Mary let them in through the kitchen door. 7. Let's ask him how many he has left. 8. If I have any money left after I have bought all the things that they are asking me for, I will let you take it. 9. We can't do much with what is left.


La ley es Dios—o debe serlo.[15]

40. English now is generally translated ahora, but when it means already it is rendered ya.

I am going to take a walk through the village now.

Voy a salir a dar una vuelta por el pueblo ahora.


I have been a workman in the shops for a week now.

Soy operario de los talleres hace ya una semana.


(a) The phrases well, now, and now, then, may be rendered ahora bien. The exclamatory phrase come, now! is expressed ¡vamos!, ¡vaya!, or ¡ea!

Come now, Antonio dear, a little patience!

¡Ea, Antoñito, un poco de paciencia!TOMAYO Y BAUS.

Come now! Tell me everything. I am your friend.

¡Vamos! Confíemelo todo. Yo soy su amiga.


(b) Now ... now ... is translated ya ... ya ... or ora ... ora ....

Now it was too hot, now it was too cold for him.

Ya hacía demasiado calor, ya demasiado frío.

Note.—The phrase from now on is translated de aquí en adelante.

41. English about as a preposition meaning of is translated de; meaning in regard to or concerning it is rendered acerca de; meaning almost, nearly, in the neighborhood of it is cerca de or más o menos.

What are you talking about?

¿De qué habla usted?

I have to write to him about that matter.

Tengo que escribirle acerca de ese asunto.

I have about a hundred.

Tengo cerca de ciento (ciento más o menos).

42. To be about to is rendered estar al punto de or estar para.

When we arrived, the others were about to leave.

Al llegar nosotros, estaban los otros para salir.

43. The verb to feel meaning to experience, perceive is rendered sentir; meaning to be of the opinion, think it is rendered pensar, ser de la opinion, parecerle a uno; meaning to have the feeling of it is rendered ser ... al tacto; meaning to touch it is palpar or tentar.

I feel for this man a tremendous interest.

Siento por este hombre un interés tremendo.


Do you feel ill? Just a little pain.

¿Te sientes malo? Un dolorcillo, nada más.


Well, I feel that it would be better to return now.

Pues, a mí me parece que sería mejor volver ahora.

What's in this bag? It is something that feels hard.

¿Qué hay en este saco? Es algo que es muy duro al tacto.

Feel this. It's too hard, isn't it?

Palpe (Tiente) éste. Es demasiado duro, ¿no?


(a) 1. Ahora tengo ganas de bailar. 2. Pero ya no ha de ir usted, ¿verdad? 3. Por desgracia ya me quedan pocos. 4. De aquí en adelante se ha de trocar mi adversa fortuna en próspera. 5. Palpaba su chaqueta para ver si estaba mojada. 6. Me gusta mucho esta tela. Es muy blanda al tacto. 7. Eran cerca de las ocho cuando oimos sonar una campana. 8. Ya es hora de acabar. 9. Los viejos sienten el frío. 10. Ya lo vi y ya desapareció de nuevo.

(b) 1. He feels better now. It's not necessary to call the doctor. 2. Do you want to see them? Well, they have come now. 3. He has about two hundred books in his library. 4. Come now! You know what I told you just now (see Section 24 (c)). 5. Feel his hands. How cold they are! 6. It was about six o'clock when we felt the first shock of the earthquake. 7. He was feeling his way (to feel one's way, andar a tientas) in the dark corridor. 8. We do not feel safe here, but father feels that it would be foolish to go out just now.


Hacer bien a los villanos es echar agua en la mar.[16]

45. English will as an auxiliary has two meanings. As denoting simple futurity it is in Spanish included in the future form of the verb. As a synonym of to want to, will is translated by the present tense of the verb querer.

They will get here to-morrow and then I will tell them.

Llegarán mañana y se lo diré entonces.

I will tell it to as many as (all who) will listen to me.

Lo diré a cuantos quieran oirme.—TOMAYO Y BAUS.

Note.—In case of doubt substitute is going to or wants to for will. If the former keeps the sense, use the future tense; if the latter, use querer.

(a) Shall, denoting simple futurity, is included in the future tense.

I shall not be able to come. Shall you be here?

Yo no podré venir. ¿Estará usted aquí?

Expressing determination on the part of the speaker, shall must be translated by a clause or by deber with the infinitive.

You say he has stolen your bicycle? Well, he shall return it at once.

¿Dice Vd. que se le ha robado su bicicleta? Pues, yo haré que se la devuelva en seguida, or debe devolverla.

46. The word all, commonly translated todo, has many different translations which should be learned in the phrases in which they occur. Of these the commonest are: all at once, all of a sudden, de repente; all right, bueno, bien, está bien; all alone, solo, solito; first of all, en primer lugar, ante todo; not at all, de ningún modo, no hay de que (an expression of courtesy in reply to the person who says thank you); all over (everywhere), por todas partes.

(a) All that or all the ... that may be translated literally todo lo que or todos los ... but they are frequently rendered by cuanto and cuantos.

Up to now I did all that was in my power for you.

Hasta ahora hice cuanto estaba en mis manos por vosotros.


I have at my disposal all the money that I may need.

Tengo a mi disposición cuanto dinero pueda necesitar.


I am very much obliged to you. Not at all, sir, not at all.

Le estoy muy agradecido a usted. No hay de que, señor, no hay de que.

Note also the phrase it's all the same (it makes no difference), lo mismo da.


(a) 1. No es de ningún modo lo que se llama hombre rico. 2. Ya es tarde. Tendrá ganas de marcharse. 3. Al decirme la señora "Muchas gracias," yo respondí "No hay de que, señora." 4. Le hemos convidado a acompañarnos, pero no quiere venir. 5. Vendrá mañana y le prometemos a usted que haremos que vuelva en seguida. 6. No queremos dejarte solo solito. Ven tú también. 7. No quiere callarse, pero lo mismo da. No le hacemos caso. 8. De repente se puso a buscarlo por todas partes de la casa. 9. En primer lugar debe devolver todo lo que necesita usted, ante (above) todo los cuadernos. 10. Vamos a ver. ¿Está bien la cuenta?

(b) 1. Is that all you have to do? Well, I'm going to look for another job for you. 2. He says he won't stay here all alone. 3. Is your letter written? Well, my son shall take it to the post-office with mine. 4. There will be a masked ball this evening. Shall you go? 5. What shall I tell them? Tell them that we shall not send the things till they ask for them. 6. All right. Tell me when it is all over (to be all over, acabarse). 7. He will give you all you want if you ask him for it. 8. I have already asked him many times, but he will not listen to me. 9. All the brothers I have are older than I am. 10. Well, since they say they will not do it, I shall have to do it myself.


Es difícil salvar a quien no quiere salvarse de ningún modo.[17]

48. The word way meaning road is translated camino; meaning manner or mode it is rendered manera or modo.

Our sailor was on the way to become rich.

Nuestro marinero estaba en camino de hacerse rico.


Don't talk to me in that way if you don't want to make me cry.

No me hables de este modo si no quieres hacerme llorar.


(a) This way and that way indicating direction are rendered por aquí and por allí.

At any rate (any way) I shall come this way to see your nephew.

De todos modos pasaré por aquí para ver a su sobrino.


When strongly demonstrative this way and that way are rendered así, thus:

Do you want me to do it this way or that way?

¿Quiere usted que yo lo haga así o así?

(b) My way, your way, etc., meaning as I do it, as you do it, are rendered como lo hago yo, como lo hace usted, etc.

To do it your way I should need more time.

Para hacerlo como lo hace usted yo necesitaría más tiempo.

(c) To have one's own way is translated hacer su voluntad or hacer como quiere uno.

You don't want to do it? Well, have your own way.

¿No quieres hacerlo? Bueno, haz tu voluntad.

They spoil her by letting her have her own way all the time.

La miman dejándola hacer como quiere todo el tiempo.

49. The adjective hard is rendered duro when it means not soft; difícil, when it means not easy. As an adverb meaning vigorously, energetically, diligently, it should be rendered by the Spanish adverb that fits best in the sentence. So, to study hard (diligently); to blow hard (strongly); to work hard (diligently or much); to think hard (deeply, intently).

This bread is so hard that it is hard to cut it.

Este pan es tan duro que es difícil cortarlo.

The wind blew hard all night.

El viento sopló fuertemente toda la noche.

You will have to study harder if you want to pass.

Tendrá Vd. que estudiar más diligentemente si quiere ser promovido.

He has had to work hard all his life.

Ha tenido que trabajar mucho toda la vida.

50. The verb to give is generally dar, but it has many idiomatic translations. So, to give back (return), devolver; to give in or give up (consent, yield), consentir, ceder, rendir; to give up (renounce), renunciar; to give out (publish; fail), publicar; acabarse, concluirse.

And now give me something to eat.

Y ahora dame algo que comer.—RAMOS CARRIÓN.

This man never gives in.

Este hombre no se rinde nunca.—PÉREZ GALDÓS.

After walking a very short distance, her strength gave out.

Después de andar muy corta distancia, se le acabaron las fuerzas.


(a) 1. Se lo devolví ayer. 2. Primero se acabó la harina y después al azúcar. 3. Se proclamó (publicó, anunció) que la reunión se verificaría aquel mismo día. 4. Estaba cansado de tanto correr. 5. Habrá que renunciar todo eso si quiere tener éxito. 6. Vamos por allí. Es más corto el camino. 7. Quiere descansar después de tanto trabajar. 8. De este modo nunca llegaremos. 9. Hemos hecho lo posible para persuadirles, pero no quieren ceder.

(b) 1. If he does it, he will have to do it my way. 2. They have not yet given out the names of the committee. 3. My ink gave out and I had to use a pencil. 4. If you write it that way, it will be hard to read it. 5. He gave up his family for his country. 6. Well, I expect to have my own way in regard to this matter. 7. We took the longest way to get home. 8. In that way you will never get to where you want to go. 9. Come here! Don't get excited in that way. 10. It's raining hard now; if it doesn't stop soon, it will be hard to get home. 11. It's hard work for me to believe that (say, it costs me work).


Yo nunca tengo miedo cuando hago lo que debo.[18]

52. The verb to think in the sense of to reflect or intend is pensar (en). As a synonym of to believe it is creer. Where it seems to me, to him, etc., may be substituted for I think, he thinks, etc., the verb parecer in the third person is used, the English subject becoming the Spanish indirect object.

You will not think of returning to Salamanca to-day.

Usted no pensará en regresar a Salamanca hoy.


Do you think I didn't understand?

¿Cree usted que yo no lo he comprendido?


Sir, I think you have dropped something.

Caballero, me parece que se le ha caído algo.


53. The verb to make in its simplest use is rendered hacer. It has, however, a very large number of idiomatic uses that call for other translations. Of these, some of the commonest are: to make haste, darse prisa; to make fun of, burlarse de, mofárse de; to make the acquaintance of, conocer; to make up one's mind, decidirse, resolverse, or, in the perfect tenses, tener determinado.

The machinery was making so much noise that we could not hear what he said.

Hacía tanto ruido la maquinaria que no podíamos oír lo que dijo.

Make haste if you don't want to be late.

Dese prisa si no quiere llegar con retraso.

I have come exclusively to make the acquaintance of this young lady.

He venido exclusivamente por conocer a esta señorita.


Her brothers, on the other hand, made fun of her.

Sus hermanos en cambio se burlaban de ella.


When he makes up his mind to do something he does it, and now he has made up his mind not to keep on helping them.

Cuando se resuelve (decide) a hacer algo lo hace, y ya tiene determinado que no seguirá amparándolos.

(a) To make up for may mean recuperate, compensate, or recompense, and in these senses is translated by the cognate verbs recuperar, compensar, recompensar.

The money that he has just received from his father will make up for his losses.

El dinero que acaba de recibir de su padre le compensará por lo perdido.

I'm sorry I forgot to tell you. How can I make up to you for it?

Siento haberme olvidado de decírselo. ¿Cómo puedo recompensárselo?


(a) 1. Al pasar por su cuarto la vieron rezando y se burlaron de ella. 2. ¿Qué le parece mi protegido ya que le conoce usted? 3. Ya tengo bastante en que pensar. 4. ¿Le parecen a usted bien las vendas de este ancho? 5. ¿No creen ustedes que el trabajar tanto será perjudicial para su salud? 6. Dígale que se dé prisa. Ya estamos para partir. 7. Si no se mejora en unos días, creo que debemos llamar al médico. 8. ¿Tiene usted las manos limpias? Me parece que sí. 9. Le conocí el año pasado en Londres. 10. Ya se ha recuperado de sus grandes perdidos.

(b) 1. We have all made up our minds not to give away all that we possess. 2. Do you think that what I want to do is all right? 3. If you don't make haste you will not have the pleasure of making the acquaintance of the famous author. 4. We shall have to make up to you what you have suffered through our carelessness. 5. We are thinking of making up a party to go to the theater to-night. 6. Do you think they will go with us if we ask them? 7. They very often quarrel, but they are never long in making up. 8. Wait a minute. I think I dropped something. 9. Who made this? It is very well made, isn't it? 10. They have had (llevado) a great disappointment, but this kind offer will make up to them for it.


Los sabios en su vanidad suelen olvidarse de Dios.[19]

55. The verb to miss has two translations. Meaning to feel the absence of it is rendered echar de menos; meaning to note the absence of it is notar la falta de. To be missing is translated faltar.

Come! Go at once. Don't let them miss you.

¡Ea! ¡Vaya pronto! Que no le echen a Vd. de menos.


When did you miss the things that your servant stole?

¿Cuándo ha notado usted la falta de las cosas que le robó su criado?

If I were missing, it is possible that the King might suspect.

Si yo faltara, es posible que el Rey sospechara.


One single boat was missing and that was not to come.

Faltaba una sola lancha y ésta no había de llegar.


56. In English, emphasis is usually expressed by additional stress on the word to be emphasized. In Spanish this is not so common, emphasis being more generally expressed by the use of some emphatic word with the word to be emphasized. Such words are ¡vaya!, ¡toma!, ¡mira!, sí, sí.

Let money talk, I said. And it did talk.

Hable el dinero, dije. ¡Y toma si habló!


Nobody knows it, nobody! But I know it.

Nadie lo sabe, nadie. Pero yo sí lo sé.—MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

What an ovation she received!

¡Vaya si ha recibido una ovación!—LOS QUINTERO.

Do you remember? Do I remember!

¿Se acuerda usted? ¡(Vaya) si me acuerdo!


You are good! You are an angel!

¡Tú sí que eres buena! ¡Tú sí que eres un ángel!


Emphasis in a negative sentence may be expressed by repeating the negative no at the end of the sentence or by using the phrase eso no at the end.

She hasn't stolen anything from me.

No me ha robado nada, eso no.—LOS QUINTERO.

The journey didn't tire me.

El viaje no me cansó, eso no.

I will not let him go, I tell you.

No le dejaré ir, te digo, que no.

(a) Personal pronouns in the nominative case are usually omitted. When emphasized, they must be expressed.

I'll help you if I have time.

Te ayudaré si tengo el tiempo.

I would help you if I had time.

Yo te ayudaría si tuviera el tiempo.

In the objective case these pronouns are emphasized by adding the disjunctive, or prepositional, form of the pronoun to the sentence.

You may say all you want to to me, but don't insult him.

A mí puede Vd. decirme cuanto quiera, pero no le ofenda a él.


(b) To assert emphatic belief in a statement the expressions ¡ya lo creo!, ¡cómo no!, sí, por cierto, are used. Equivalent expressions in the negative form are ¡de ningún modó!, ¡no, por cierto!

He's coming at once, isn't he? Yes, indeed (certainly; why, of course).

Viene en seguida, ¿no? ¡Ya lo creo!—ECHEGARAY.

He's coming with us, isn't he? No, indeed.

Va a acompañarnos a nosotros, ¿no? No, por cierto.


(a) 1. I won't do that. 2. What a pretty flower! 3. You won't do that! 4. That is good. 5. Will he come? I should say so! 6. Shall I give it to you? 7. No, give it to them. 8. He hasn't missed the money yet. 9. I miss all the good friends who used to live near me. 10. I don't know him, but I do know his brother. 11. Is that door open? I don't know, but I do know that I am cold. 12. My, but this lesson is hard! 13. Do you want it now? Certainly. 14. There's a pretty house! 15. They say they miss us at home. 16. I miss three of my books (say, three of my books are missing to me). 17. Do you want to go with her? I certainly do. 18. I shall miss you, but not the others. 19. There is something missing here and you know what it is. 20. I do not know.


El topo no ve en lo que profundiza, pero el hombre, sí.[20]


(a) 1. Let's prepare for the worst. 2. Let's go. We mustn't let our presence here excite suspicion. 3. Come now! you ought to have more sense. 4. The man of whom we were speaking is here now. 5. All right. But I can't see him just now. 6. Come, come! Leave me in peace. 7. Look at the fire! Now it seems that it is dying out (morirse), now it flames up (alzar) again. 8. You ought to know now that they were deceiving you. 9. Water the flower beds first of all. 10. I paid my creditors and now I can leave the house without fear.

(b) 1. How long have you felt ill? 2. Shall I take this away? No, leave it. I'll eat it. 3. He shall eat nothing. I will see to that. 4. Has he hurt himself? Not at all. 5. He shall not leave the house if he will not tell me what he has done. 6. On the table were left only the knives, forks, and spoons. 7. Provided their strength does not give out, they will continue their journey to-day. 8. Think well before you speak. 9. She has made up her mind to keep you in this afternoon. 10. Do you think this lesson is hard?

Note.—In the exercises above the italics indicate words which require especial care in translating. In Exercise C the italics indicate emphasis.

(c) 1. They don't miss him, but they do miss her. 2. The electric light has gone out, but the lamp hasn't. 3. Do I think of them? Indeed I do think of them! 4. He has never written such a letter to me. 5. I feel ill, but I shall not call the doctor. 6. That's not what I was talking about. 7. I won't do it for him! 8. Why, they are going to leave it here! 9. I don't want to go! 10. He won't make haste.


La buena música es como una espuela de las ideas perezosas.[21]

59. English time has various translations. Meaning time of day it is hora.

When it came time to go to bed he went toward the room.

Cuando llegó la hora de acostarse fué hacia el cuarto.


At this time of day and at this time of night are translated a estas horas.

I wonder where Elise is going at this time of night?

¿Adónde irá Elisa a estas horas?—PALACIO VALDÉS.

(a) Denoting one time of a series, time is always vez.

Every time it rains the sky sows diamonds.

Cada vez que llueve el cielo siembra diamantes.—CAMPOAMOR.

(b) Denoting a period of time or length of time the word is translated tiempo.

This church has been here since the most remote times.

Esta iglesia se halla aquí desde los tiempos más remotos.

In this house I lose the idea of time.

En esta casa pierdo la noción del tiempo.—ECHEGARAY.

60. Time occurs also in many idiomatic adverbial phrases. The commonest of these are from time to time, de vez en cuando, de cuando en cuando; from this time on, de hoy en adelante, de aquí en adelante; from that time on, de ahí en adelante; time after time, time and time again, una que otra vez.

He agreed to return from time to time.

Se quedó en volver de cuando en cuando.


From time to time he stopped for a few minutes.

De vez en cuando se detenía algunos instantes.


Note.De cuando en cuando and de vez en cuando translate also the English adverbial idioms every now and then or every once in a while.

61. The verb to like meaning to be fond of (persons) is generally translated querer, but sometimes gustar is used. To like (things) is gustar.

We don't like our new neighbors very well.

No queremos mucho a nuestros nuevos vecinos.

I don't like this house as well as I did the other.

No me gusta esta casa tanto como me gustó la otra.

He will like these. Let's see if there are any more here.

Estos le gustarán. A ver si hay más por aquí.


Note.—Though the verb gustar may be used in the regular way with a personal subject, it is more commonly used as in these examples, the thing being considered as the subject and the person as the indirect object. Cf. 51, note.

(a) Like used as a preposition of manner is translated como or cual.

The girl is charming, like her mother.

La niña es, cual su madre, encantadora.—CAMPOAMOR.

This boy sings like a bird.

Este muchacho canta como un pájaro.

(b) To feel like in the sense of to want, desire, is translated tener ganas de with the infinitive.

I don't feel like going to-day.

No tengo ganas de ir hoy.

(c) In questions what's ... like is translated ¿qué tal ...?

What's the new professor like?

¿Qué tal el nuevo profesor?

Look at me.—I'm looking.—Well, what do I look like to you?

Mírame.—Te miro.—Bueno, ¿qué tal te parezco?



(a) 1. ¿Cuáles le gustan más, éstos o aquéllos? 2. Hay tiempo para todo. 3. Unas veces le trata usted bien y otras veces mal. 4. Hace tiempo que noto eso. 5. De aquí en adelante necesitaremos más tiempo. 6. De vez en cuando me habló. 7. Una que otra vez bajaban al manantial. 8. Ya es hora de irnos, si no queremos llegar con retraso. 9. No me gusta escribir con plumatintero. 10. Quiere mucho a todos sus maestros. 11. ¿Qué tal el tiempo en aquella región? A mí no me gusta un clima frío.

(b) 1. I don't like this song, I'm not going to learn it. 2. This time I'm sure you will like what I have brought you. 3. At that time there was only one school in the town. 4. I get letters from them from time to time. 5. I asked him what the new play was like and he said it was very interesting. 6. She had on a big hat that was like a bee-hive. 7. Every time I see him he talks like that (in that way). 8. The river encircles the city like a silver chain. 9. What time does the train arrive? Isn't it time to go to the station? 10. Well, I don't like your new dress. It looks like (parecer) an old lady's dress.


En cosas de fe, para ver claro hay que ser ciego.[22]

63. Very as an adverb is muy. As an adjective it is mismo, -a. When it stands alone it is mucho. Very much is always mucho or muchísimo.

He was a very intelligent man, fortunate in his mining business.

Era hombre muy inteligente, afortunado en su comercio de minas.PÉREZ GALDÓS.

This very afternoon I will go to his house.

Esta misma tarde iré a su casa.—LOS QUINTERO.

"I shall be very glad," she said with a smile.

Me alegraré mucho,—dijo con una sonrisa.—JUAN VALERA.

It would be very much better to leave it for the present.

Sería muchísimo mejor dejarlo por lo pronto.

(a) Emphatic very is often translated by the suffixes -ísimo and -ito.

There did not appear to be any internal injury, but he did have a very high fever.

Lesión interior no parecía que hubiese, pero sí tenía fievre altísima.


She fell ill, very, VERY ill. The doctor said she was going to die.

Se puso mala, muy malita. El médico dijo que iba a morir.


64. The verb to play is translated jugar a when it means to play games or take a part in a drama. To play instruments is rendered tocar.

The children were playing in the street. They were playing ball.

Los niños jugaban en la calle. Jugaban a la pelota.

And the woman, what part does SHE play in all this?

Y la mujer, ¿qué papel juega ella en todo ello?


Go and play the piano so that these gentlemen may hear you.

Vete a tocar el píano para que estos señores te oigan.


65. The verb to need is rendered either necesitar, hacer falta, or faltar.

What this boy needs is the pure air of the country.

Lo que le hace falta a ese muchacho es el aire puro del campo.RAMOS CARRIÓN.

I do not need to inform you that first I asked for the other one.

No necesito advertirle a Vd. que primero pedí la otra.


The tea isn't needed now. You may take it away.

Ya no hace falta el té. Puede Ud. llevárselo.


Less than this was necessary to satisfy the hearers.

Menos de eso se necesitaba para satisfacer los oyentes.


Note the order in the first example and compare with Sections 51, note, and 60.


(a) 1. A él no le hace falta (no le falta) mucho, pero a mí me hacen falta (me faltan) muchas cosas. 2. Necesito un hombre que cuide de los caballos. 3. Su casa es muchísimo más grande que la nuestra. 4. ¿Quién ha jugado (or hecho) el papel de Shylock en la representación de anoche? 5. Tan cansaditos estaban que se acostaron en cuanto llegaron. 6. Llévatelo, que a mí no me hace ninguna falta. 7. Los ví esta misma mañana. Parecían contentísimos. 8. En la casa siempre hay que hablar quedito porque siempre hay alguien que está durmiendo. 9. Tomó en la suya la manecita. La temperatura estaba altísima. 10. Lo primero que hace falta para querer es el corazón.

(b) 1. You do not need to tell me that. I know it already. 2. I heard somebody playing the violin. 3. That is the very book I need. Will you lend it to me? 4. She needs a nurse to take care of the children. 5. (Be) very, very quiet! Mother's asleep. 6. I do like that penknife, but I don't need one. 7. The street is very long and very, very narrow. 8. The little girls are very pretty. My little daughter likes to play with them. 9. The last time they were here they gave me many things that I needed. 10. Are they satisfied with (de) what you have sent them? Oh, yes, very.


Debe estar el valor de acuerdo con la prudencia.[23]
Nuñez de Arce.

67. The verb to please meaning to give pleasure to is rendered agradar a; meaning to satisfy it is translated contentar; meaning to want to, be willing to it is usually rendered querer, though it may be translated as in (a).

It pleased him very much to hear that we had arrived safe and sound.

Le agradó muchísimo saber que habíamos llegado salvo y sano.

Do what I may I never manage to please her.

Haga lo que hiciere nunca logro contentarla.

Ask him if he will please come and help me.

Pregúntele si quiere venir a ayudarme.

(a) Please used in the imperative is translated by one of the following expressions: haga el favor de, tenga la bondad de; sírvase. Of these the first two are considered the more formally courteous. All are followed by the infinitive.

Please be quiet.

Hágame el favor de callar.—PALACIO VALDÉS.

Waiter, please open the window.

Mozo, sírvase abrir la ventana.

Note.—In curter familiar speech, the word favor alone may be used.

Please answer at once.

Favor de contestar en seguida.

68. The verb to mean, signifying to intend, is rendered tener la intención de or proponerse.

He means to finish the work without any one's helping him.

Se propone (tiene la intención de) acabar el trabajo sin que nadie le ayude.

(a) In the sense of to wish to say, mean is translated querer decir.

What does this word mean?

¿Qué quiere decir esta palabra?

When I mean introduces a qualifying phrase, it is often rendered digo, I say.

They call her little Pilar. I wish they'd call me little Pilar—I mean, little Antonio.

La llaman Pilarcita. ¡Si me llamasen a mí Pilarcita—digo, Antoñito!


(b) Not to mean to do something is generally rendered by hacer algo sin querer.

I'm sorry I broke the window. I didn't mean to.

Yo siento haber quebrado el vidriero. Lo he hecho sin querer.

(c) To mean in the sense of to dare is rendered atreverse.

What do you mean by talking to me in that way?

¿Cómo se atreve Vd. hablarme de esta manera?

69. Without is translated sin, except when it introduces a verbal noun in -ing, modified by a possessive. In this case, without is rendered by the conjunction sin que, the English verbal noun becomes in Spanish a verb in the subjunctive mode and its possessive modifier becomes the subject of the clause.

He went away without looking at her and without her looking at him.

Se marchó sin mirarla y sin que ella le mirara a él.


I won't go without saying good-by to you.

No iré sin decirte adios.—PÉREZ GALDÓS.


(a) 1. Dígales que hagan el favor de pasar a la sala. 2. ¿Quiere Vd. hacerme el favor de plancharme este traje? 3. Sírvase Vd. decir al señor que yo le espero en mi despacho. 4. La representación nos ha agradado muchísimo. 5. ¡Vaya un tonto! ¿Tendrá la intención de quedar aquí? 6. Sabe tocar el violin, digo, el piano. 7. ¡Este sí que la contentará! 8. No debes llorar sin que yo sepa porqué lloras. 9. Mientras llueve no salimos sin paraguas. 10. No salgas sin que yo te dé permiso.

(b) 1. Please tell him that I'm waiting for him. 2. Do you think this will please him? 3. Don't go without me, please. 4. What do you mean by eating all the candy! 5. It will be impossible for us to go without their seeing us. 6. They have three daughters, I mean, two daughters and one son. 7. Please come as soon as you can if you can come without bringing the others. 8. I didn't mean to do that; please forgive me. 9. He means that if you mean to do that without your father's knowing it you will have to hurry. 10. He wrote without thinking that it was impossible for him to write without my knowing it.


Cuando empiezan las manos, las lenguas suelen callar.[24]

71. The word only is both adjective and adverb. As an adjective it is in Spanish único. (Cf. English unique.)

You are the only person in whom I can confide.

Tu eres la única persona a quien puedo confiar.


(a) The only thing (fact) is rendered lo único.

The only thing she knew was that he had taken that train.

Lo único que sabía era que había tomado aquel tren.


(b) As an adverb only is rendered sólo, solamente, or, modifying expressions of quantity, no más ... que (de before numbers). For the order of the phrase in the sentence, see the examples.

If I only had what my father gave me, I shouldn't have enough to pay the baker.

Si sólo tuviera lo que me da el padre, no tendría para pagar al panadero.


They saw only soldiers on the platforms.

Veían sólo soldados en los andenes.—BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

I have only three. (I have but three. I have just three.)

Tengo solo tres. (Tengo tres solamente. Tengo tres, nada más. No tengo más de tres.)

(c) If only, expressing a wish contrary to fact, is rendered ojalá with imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive.

If only he were here.

¡Ojalá que estuviera aquí!

72. Solo without the accent means alone, or single.

The other compartment was occupied by a single man.

El otro compartamento estaba ocupado por un hombre solo.


Bernard loves me alone and I love only him.

Bernardo me quiere a mí sola y yo quiero sólo a él.


(a) Alone (with) is often rendered a solas (con).

Alone, I weep much and am fearfully sorry for myself.

A solás lloro mucho y tengo compasión atroz de mí mismo.


We left him alone with his conscience.

Le dejamos a solas con su conciencia.—EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

73. The verb to hear is oír when actual hearing is meant. Sometimes sentir is used in the same sense.

I put my ear to the lock and heard voices and laughter.

Pegué el oído a la cerradura y oí voces y risas.


Scarcely did she hear the noise and see us, when she got up.

No bien sintió el ruido y nos vió, se levantó.—JUAN VALERA.

(a) When to hear has the force of to find out, learn, it is rendered saber.

You have heard from my father how much these orchards please me.

Ha sabido por mi padre lo mucho que me gustan estas huertas.



(a) 1. Yo no puedo trasnochar. Es lo único que me hace daño. 2. Un día le vieron solo y se acercaron para hablarle. 3. Hablaba a solas con el Argentino. 4. Sólo de oirle se puso más animado. 5. Supe por mi hermano que ustedes asistieron al teatro anoche. 6. Solo aquel hombre podría adquirir tanto dinero en tan poco tiempo. 7. El tío que había sido el único apoyo de la familia acababa de morir. 8. ¡Déjele a este niño! ¿Por qué se burla usted de él? 9. Hay solamente tres aquí. ¿Tres, nada más?

(b) 1. He alone knew what had been done for them. 2. I have heard from home only once this week. 3. He has many books in his library, but only a few are good. 4. I think I hear a child crying. Well, it's only the children playing in the yard. 5. Leave the room. I want to speak with your brother alone. 6. We heard something like a groan, but I think it was only the wind. 7. Did you hear what happened this morning? You didn't? (¿no?) Well, I meant to tell you when we were alone. 8. We drink only water. 9. The lesson wasn't hard. It was only that I didn't have much time. 10. This is the only time that I have been able to see you alone.


El miedo hace esclavos. La esclavitud hace rebeldes.[25]
Tomayo y Baus.

75. English right as a noun indicating that which is legal, or permissible, is translated derecho.

I haven't the right to take it away with me.

No tengo el derecho de llevármelo.

(a) To be right as the opposite of to be wrong or mistaken is rendered tener razón; meaning to be just it is ser justo.

Was it right to leave the boy in that deserted place?

¿Era justo dejar al muchacho en aquel lugar desierto?


Uncle is right. We must send him to Paris.

Tiene razón el tío. Debemos mandarle a París.—RAMOS CARRIÓN.

(b) As the opposite of left, right is derecho.

In her right hand she held a lamp.

En la mano derecha tenía una lámpara.

The phrases on the right and to the right are rendered a la derecha.

St. Mark's church is on the right.

La iglesia de San Marcos se halla a la derecha.

(c) All right is translated bueno or bien.

All right, then. I'll give you a dollar for it. That's all right, isn't it?

Bueno, entonces. Le daré un duro por él. Está bien, ¿no?

76. When duty is expressed, English must is translated deber. When must expresses what is probably true, deber de is the translation. To express necessity, tener que is used.

Children must obey their parents.

Los niños deben obedecer a sus padres.

He must have a high opinion of her.

Debe de tener un alto concepto de ella.—JUAN VALERA.

I must go to the city to-day.

Tengo que ir a la ciudad hoy.

(a) When must is followed by a passive infinitive, hay que or ha de is used with the infinitive. Hay que also translates the impersonal one (we, you, they, people) must.

It mustn't be said that this meeting was in vain.

No ha de decirse que este encuentro fué en vano.


One must talk of that. One must remember that.

Hay que hablar de eso. Hay que acordarse de eso.


(b) Expressing conjecture or probability must is often translated by the future and conditional of the verb which in English is the complementary infinitive with must. The future translates the present, and the conditional the perfect infinitive.

He must know something about it. He must have worn something.

Algo sabrá de eso. Algo se pondría.—LOS QUINTERO.

It must be because she did it. It must have been that.

Será porque ella lo haya hecho. Eso sería.


(a) 1. Llaman a la puerta. Serán ellos. 2. Su hermano debe de ser cómplice. 3. La hazaña debió de suceder anoche. 4. No debes llorar sin decirme por qué. 5. Ha de perdonarme usted si soy un poco malicioso. 6. No hay que apurarse. Estará bueno en un momento. 7. Usted debe de haber visto la casa en donde vivo. 8. Debe de ser esa casa blanca a la derecha. 9. No hay que esperarlos hoy. Tienen razón en no venir. 10. Serían las tres cuando al fin llegaron.

(b) 1. I must write a letter to a friend who is ill. 2. That man must have a very poor memory. 3. I have brought you a dozen eggs. Is that all right? 4. It is not right to tell a child what he must do and not help him to do it. 5. On the right of the avenue was (hallarse) a beautiful park. 6. Look what I have written. It is all right, isn't it? 7. The bell rang, didn't it? It must be the postman. 8. It must have been John who telephoned me last night. 9. Is this bill right? It must be. It seems to be all right. 10. I must telephone him and tell him that it must be done before night.


Santos hay donde menos se piensa.[26]

78. The verb to appear is rendered parecer when the meaning is to seem; meaning to put in an appearance it is translated aparecer, dejarse ver, presentarse, or asomar, the last with the idea of just coming into view.

He appears to be absolutely tired out.

Parece estar cansado a más no poder.

The moon appears and paints blue shadows.

Aparece (asoma) la luna y pinta sombras azules.


At the same moment the face of the Catalan appeared through the window.

Al mismo momento asomó el rostro del Catalán por la ventana.


He tried to appear in public as little as possible.

Procuraba presentarse en pública lo menos posible.—ALARCÓN.

79. The verb to succeed is rendered suceder when the meaning is to follow; meaning to be able to, manage to, it is rendered lograr with the direct infinitive; in the sense of to be successful it is translated tener éxito.

Edward VII. succeeded Queen Victoria.

Eduardo Séptimo sucedió a la reina Victoria.

And so I'm lost if I don't succeed in escaping?

¿Conque estoy perdido si no logro escaparme?—ALARCÓN.

He'll succeed. Indeed he will!

Tendrá éxito. ¡Vaya si lo tendrá!

80. The word even used adverbially is aun or hasta. Used to emphasize a noun it is generally hasta. Not even is translated hasta ... no, or ni (siquiera); and the phrase even if not is ya que no.

The landlady, the tailor, and even the night-watchman can wait.

La patrona, el sastre, y hasta el sereno pueden esperar.


Not even so do I trust him.

Ni aun así me fío de él.GIL Y ZÁRATE.

I don't want anybody, not even her, to share this sacrifice with me.

Yo no quiero que nadie, ni siquiera ella, comparta este sacrificio conmigo.—LOS QUINTERO.

Even if not rich, they are by no means poor. Ya que no ricos, no son de ningún modo pobres.

81. Toward indicating direction is hacia. Denoting inclination it is rendered para con.

We saw that they were all walking toward the river.

Vimos que todos caminaban hacia el río.

Toward his own children he was always unjust.

Para con sus propios hijos fué siempre injusto.


(a) 1. Pegaron fuego hasta a las iglesias. 2. Le felicito a Vd. y aun más a su familia. 3. Todavía no se ha dejado ver. 4. ¿Quién sucedió al Presidente Lincoln? 5. Saltó al agua y logró salvar al niño. 6. Logré alcanzarlos hacia la noche. 7. Era muy generoso para con sus amigos menos afortunados. 8. No tenían ni siquiera un duro. 9. Hasta su padre no sabía lo que habían hecho. 10. Parece que al momento de asomarse él a la puerta le dijeron que tenía que presentarse ante el juez.

(b) 1. They appear to be very happy even if they are not rich. 2. Toward morning a light appeared in the house. 3. Even so, I don't like his conduct towards his family. 4. I haven't even answered the letters that they wrote me. 5. He even shook hands with the beggars in the street. 6. I think he will succeed in getting the money. 7. He went toward the door without looking at us. 8. I don't feel any anger toward him. 9. They have succeeded in opening the door, but even now they can't get in. 10. Even if not of as good material as mine, it is very well made.


De la mentira sale mucha veces la verdad.[27]


(a) 1. I have known him only a short time. 2. They returned last night at the usual time. 3. They will always need me and so I shall keep on sacrificing myself for them. 4. She is very pretty, isn't she? Yes, very. 5. I don't feel like playing with them now. 6. The least that it had cost him was money and time. 7. In one of the houses a lady was playing the organ. 8. He sat down like one who is not in a hurry. 9. They congregate there every day at the same time. 10. Without the money, I don't like to go to (acudir a) them. 11. It must be time for them to arrive.

(b) 1. Even so, they know very little about that man. 2. From time to time he walked toward the door. 3. They have ordered him to appear before them to-morrow. 4. It appears that I was not right when I told you that. 5. Don't go without me. I can't go without asking permission. 6. It has grown very dark. It must be going to rain. 7. Tell them it must be done. They must know that already. 8. We must get him what he needs even if it costs a lot of money. 9. We are very, very tired. We haven't had even a moment to rest all day. 10. You need not explain. I heard from your companions that you had been dismissed. 11. It must be dinner time. You must dine with us this evening.

(c) 1. Please tell them that I haven't enough even now. 2. I need even more than that, this very minute. 3. What's the weather like just now? Oh, it rains every now and then. 4. You will have to give me more time. I have only two made. 5. The only thing I need just now is a piece of soap. 6. The only thing I succeeded in getting from him was advice. 7. If only she were not so ill! But I hear that she is getting better. 8. I heard a lady singing. She sang like a nightingale. 9. If you mean that you like the way he acts (say, his manner of acting) toward others, you are crazy, I mean, you are not wise. 10. You are right. It must be he. He must have arrived this morning. 11. One mustn't think that all things are like these.


Cuando me habla el deber, tan sólo escucho su voz.[28]
Gil y Zárate.

84. The verb to sit (down) is rendered sentarse. To be sitting is rendered estar sentado.

I'm going, I'm going, you say, and you sit down.

Ya voy, ya voy, dices, y te sientas.TOMAYO Y BAUS.

Will you sit (down) here a moment, please?

¿Quiere usted sentarse aquí un momento?

Don Miguel is sitting in an armchair near the stove.

Don Miguel está sentado en un sillón inmediato al brasero.


Note.—It is always well to paraphrase sit before translating. So, I sat (sat down, took a seat, seated myself) where they told me to; I sat (was sitting) in the armchair.

85. To stand meaning to be on one's feet is rendered estar en pie or parado; meaning to rise to one's feet it is ponerse de pie.

Pardon me, I am troubled with my heart. I can't stand.

Perdóneme usted. Padezco del corazón. No puedo estar en pie.PÉREZ GALDÓS.

When they saw the lady enter, everybody stood.

Al ver entrar a la señora todo el mundo se puso de pie.

(a) Meaning to be situated, stand is translated hallarse or estar situado.

That church has stood there for years.

Aquella iglesia se halla allí desde hace muchos años.

(b) Meaning to endure, bear, suffer, stand is rendered aguantar, sufrir, soportar.

He couldn't stand the pain.

No podía soportar el dolor.

I can't stand this noise any longer.

No puedo sufrir más este ruido.

86. English corner has two translations. Meaning an exterior angle, it is rendered esquina; as an interior angle, it is rincón.

At the corner of that street stands a house, and in one corner of the garden of that house is a beautiful tree.

En la esquina de aquella calle se halla una casa, y en un rincón del jardín de esa casa se halla un hermoso árbol.


(a) 1. La casa estaba situada en medio de grandes jardines. 2. Junto a él nos sentábamos nosotros, es decir, el padre cura y yo. 3. Se sentaron en torno de una mesa junta a la ventana. 4. ¡Ponte de pie cuando yo te hablo! 5. Estamos muy bien en este rinconcito. 6. Ha de saber usted que no puedo aguantar a este hombre. 7. En la obscuridad di contra la esquina de la mesa y me lastimé el brazo. 8. No había asientos para todos y algunos tenían que quedarse parados (en pie). 9. ¿Cómo ha soportado el enfermo el largo viaje? 10. Aquí en el rincón hay un banco. Sentémonos aquí.

(b) 1. I am tired of sitting. Let's all stand up for a few minutes. 2. Who is that boy who is still sitting down? 3. How long are we going to have to stand this? 4. We sat down to rest a few minutes because we were tired. 5. The house stands a little to the right of the church. 6. She has been sitting here so very, very quiet that I had almost forgotten her. 7. You must always stand when a lady speaks to you. 8. Turning the corner, he found himself in a little square that he had never seen before. 9. Put the table in the corner. We want to sit there. 10. There was a lady whom I didn't know standing by the window.


A quien se apresta a luchar no le abaten pesares.[29]

88. English self used reflexively is rendered by the Spanish reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nos, os, se. Used as an emphatic modifier self is rendered mismo for all persons, changing only for number and gender. Mismo may be used with a reflexive to emphasize it.

I hurt myself, as you yourself can see.

Me he lastimado, como usted mismo puede ver.

Give the letter to him himself.

Entregue la carta a él mismo.—JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

I am inclined to believe that the widow loves herself above all.

Inclino a creer que la viuda ama a sí misma sobre todo.


He hurts himself in order to annoy the rest.

Es que se hace daño a sí mismo para dar un disgusto a los demás.—ECHEGARAY.

Note.Mismo may take the emphatic ending -ísimo. So él mismísmo ..., the very ... himself.

89. Last, meaning the most recent of a series, or the final one of a series, is translated último. Meaning the one just past, it is translated pasado.

The last French invasion proves how difficult it is to attack our independence.

La última irrupción francesa prueba cuán difícil es atacar nuestra independencia.—EMILIO CASTELAR.

We ourselves were there last week.

Nosotros mismos estábamos allí la semana pasada.

I said to myself, "This will be the last time."

Dije para mí—Esta será la última vez.

(a) The verb to last is translated durar.

Come! Be patient, for this will not last long.

¡Vamos! Tenga usted paciencia, que esto no durará mucho.


(b) Last night is rendered anoche or ayer por la noche.

They must have stolen them from me last night.

Debieron de robármelas anoche.—ALARCÓN.

(c) At last is translated al fin or, more emphatically, al fin y al cabo.

At last! I was beginning to think that you were lost.

¡Al fin y al cabo! Yo empezaba a creer que se había perdido usted.

90. The verb to tell has three common translations. Meaning simply to say to it is rendered decir. Meaning to relate it is contar. Meaning to be effective it is rendered producir efecto.

Tell me, grandfather, what is the name of the queen in your story?

Dime, abuelito, ¿cómo se llama la reina de tu cuento?


I told them the terrible story of the miner.

Les conté la espantosa narración del minero.—ALARCÓN.

It was a telling narrative.

Fué una narración que produjo efecto.


(a) 1. Me dice que está lloviendo en este mismo momento. 2. Contaba a los niños las aventuras de los conquistadores. 3. María se cortó hace poco con ese cuchillo. 4. Lo hemos comprado para nosotros mismos, no para ellos. 5. Bien podía ver que sus palabras habían producido efecto. 6. Esta es la última obra del insigne autor español Pérez Galdós. 7. Murió el mes pasado. 8. Al fin han venido a contarme lo ocurrido. 9. La mismísima madre de la niña no hubiera podido hacer más para salvarla. 10. Respeto a la inteligencia de las hormigas se cuentan muchas anécdotas.

(b) 1. Please tell them that this is not the book that I need. 2. I like to hear him tell how he learned to play the piano. 3. He knows how to tell it in such a way that every word tells. 4. I myself had forgotten all my troubles. 5. I was just saying to myself that it is time to go. 6. The very general himself could not have done more. 7. This is the last story that I am going to tell you. Last night you went to bed too late. 8. I was just wondering (say, asking myself) whether I was dreaming or not. 9. I'm going to take her the roses. I myself like the lilies best. 10. At last, last week, I was able to buy the last one that I needed.


Digan lo que quieran, la alegría es muy barata.[30]

92. To save in the sense of to rescue is salvar; meaning to keep, conserve, it is ahorrar, or conservar.

To save a child, I am capable of throwing myself into the fire.

Por salvar a un niño soy capaz de echarme en el fuego.


It's a pity that he didn't save more while he was earning more.

Es lástima que no haya ahorrado más mientras ganaba más.

We must save our strength.

Debemos conservar (ahorrar) nuestras fuerzas.

93. To see is usually ver, but used in conjunction with certain prepositions it calls for other translations. So to see to (take charge of) is rendered cuidar de, or tomar a su cargo; to see about (ask or inquire about) is translated informarse de or pedir informes sobre.

I'll see to the baggage.

Yo cuidaré del equipaje, or yo tomaré a mi cargo el equipaje.

What time do you want me to go and see about it?

¿A qué hora quiere usted que yo vaya a informarme de ello?


(a) To see through may be rendered (llegar a) comprender. To see a thing through is rendered llevar algo a cabo.

There's a problem that I shall never be able to see through.

¡Vaya un problema que yo nunca llegaré a comprender (or que yo nunca comprenderé)!

We've begun it and we must see it through.

Lo hemos empezado y debemos llevarlo a cabo.

(b) The exclamatory see here! is rendered ¡mire Vd.! and the imperative forms let's see and let me see are translated a ver or vamos a ver.

See here! You'll have to hurry if you want to overtake them.

¡Mire Vd.! Tendrá que darse prisa si quiere Vd. alcanzarlos.

Let's see if you with your talent can clear this up for me.

A ver si usted con su talento me aclara esto.—EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

Let's see! Will you tell me what use flowers are?

¡Vamos a ver! ¿Quiere usted decirme que utilidad tienen las flores?—PALACIO VALDÉS.

Let's see! What have you to declare?

¡A ver! ¿Qué tiene Vd. que declarar?—EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

94. Half as a noun is la mitad. As an adjective it is medio, which is also its adverbial form. Half-way there is translated a mitad del camino or en medio camino.

"They offered me the half now," said the old woman.

Me ofrecieron la mitad ahora,—dijo la anciana.


He always stopped when halfway there.

Siempre se detuvo a la mitad del camino.—BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

Halfway there, there was an inn.

En medio del camino se hallaba una venta.



(a) 1. Si Vd. me da la mitad, yo quedaré satisfecho. 2. Estábamos medio tristes y medio rabiosos. 3. Queda a media milla de distancia de aquí. 4. A ver si Vd. puede hacerlo mejor. 5. Ahorró mucho dinero en poco tiempo. 6. Es muy hábil el médico. Esperemos que salve al niño. 7. ¡Mira! si no quieres que lleguemos con retraso, date prisa. 8. Yo tomaré todo eso a mí cargo. 9. A mitad del camino tuvieron que volver. 10. Estaba medio enojada porque no le habían dado más que la mitad.

(b) 1. The firemen saved all the people in the house. 2. It is a strange affair. I can't see through it at all. 3. Half is for me and the other half for them. 4. Let's see, what's the good of this? 5. I'll see to the dinner. 6. To save time we sent a servant to see about the trains. 7. The bandits left their victims there half dead. 8. Halfway there they all sat down to rest. 9. Don't leave it half done. See it through! 10. The letter is half written. Let's see! Don't you want to finish it now?


El que presta a un amigo pierde el dinero y el amigo.[31]

96. The word as as a conjunction of cause is rendered ya que, puesto que, or como.

As you have eaten nothing to-day, it occurred to me to get a supper for you to-night.

Como hoy no has comido nada, se me ocurrió prepararte una cena esta noche.TOMAYO Y BAUS.

As they won't go with us, let's invite the others.

Ya que no quieren acompañarnos ellos, invitemos a los otros.

(a) As a conjunction of time or comparison it is como, but a temporal clause introduced by as may be rendered by al with the infinitive.

He had a slight acquaintance with foreign literature as many have to-day.

Tenía un ligero tinte de literatura extranjera como muchos lo tienen hoy.—FERNÁN CABALLERO.

As I entered the room, they all stopped talking.

Al entrar yo en la sala, todos dejaron de hablar.

(b) The correlative as ... as is rendered tan ... como, but as much ... as and as many ... as are rendered tanto ... como and tantos ... como.

My father was as charmed as ever with her.

Mi padre se mostró tan embelesado como siempre con ella.


I have as much time as I need, and as many books as I want to read.

Tengo tanto tiempo como necesito y tantos libros como quiero leer.

The second as in these phrases may be translated cuanto, cuantos, or these words may be used to translate both the first and the second as.

I will buy you as much (as many) as you need.

Te compraré cuanto (cuantos) le hacen falta.

(c) As soon as may be translated literally tan pronto como, but it is also very frequently rendered así que, en cuanto, or luego que.

You are going to do it as soon as you know what I am going to tell you.

Lo vas a hacer en cuanto sepas lo que yo te voy a decir.


As soon as night had closed in, they went again to the judge's house.

Así que se cerró la noche se dirigieron otra vez a la casa del juez.


(d) As for, as far as ... is concerned, as regards ..., all may be translated en cuanto a or por lo que toca a. Otherwise, as far as is translated hasta.

As for him, he said that he had had them also.

En cuanto a él, dijo que las había tenido también.—JUAN VALERA.

"As for me," said old Peter, "I know it by heart."

Por lo que me toca a mí,—dijo el tío Perico,—lo sé de memoria.


(e) When as introduces a clause the action of which is represented as occurring simultaneously with the action of the principal clause, it is translated a medida que.

The children drew their grandmother toward them as they spoke.

Los niños tiraron a su abuela hacia sí a medida que hablaban.



(a) 1. Sabes tan bien como yo lo que tenemos. 2. En cuanto me den el dinero, voy a Madrid. 3. Luego que venga la criada, pídeselo Vd. 4. A medida que las lanchas entraban en la ensenada, el grupo iba mermando poco a poco. 5. Al salir de la casa vieron al hombre que se escapaba. 6. Como yo le vi por última vez el año pasado, no sé si se acordará de mí. 7. Al fin y al cabo lo ha hecho como lo quiero yo. 8. Quieren que yo las acompañe hasta la iglesia. 9. Por lo que le toca a Juan, ya ha prometido darme el suyo. 10. Tengo cuantos necesito por lo pronto.

(b) 1. As I was walking in the park this morning I met an old friend. 2. As for you, some fine (good) day you are going to get what you deserve. 3. This is not so large as I wanted it. 4. Save your money as much as you can while you are young. 5. As for me myself, I spend as much as I earn. 6. Will you go as far as the corner with me? 7. They are studying Spanish as so many are doing now. 8. You must sign it as well as (tan bien como, or tanto como, lo mismo que) I. 9. As soon as I find the man who owes me all that money, I will lend you some. 10. As we approached the village, the sky was getting darker.


La libertad nunca puede ser por tiranos defendida ni propagada por esclavos.[32]—EMILIO CASTELAR.

98. The verb to want in the sense of to wish is translated by querer. Meaning to need, be in want of, it is rendered necesitar, tener menester, hacer falta a.

I want you to tell me at once.

Yo quiero que usted me lo diga en seguida.—ECHEGARAY.

I want another book. Have you any more?

Necesito (tengo menester, me hace falta) otro libro. ¿Tiene Vd. más?

They want three more chairs.

Necesitan otras tres sillas.

Note.—Observe the position of otras. The word otro regularly precedes a numeral.

99. In the conjunctive phrase either ... or, either is translated o. As a pronoun it is translated o el uno o el otro. At the end of a negative sentence either is rendered tampoco.

Either I'm much mistaken or this is going to cause talk.

O me engaño mucho o esto va a dar que hablar.


Do you want this pen or the fountain pen? Either will do.

¿Quiere Vd. esta pluma o la plumafuente?—O la una o la otra servirá.

And I don't think I'm a fool, either.

Y creo que no soy tonto, tampoco.—RAMOS CARRIÓN.

When either at the end of a negative sentence is used merely for emphasis, it is expressed by repeating the negative no.

I didn't do it, either!

¡No lo he hecho, no!

100. Neither is ni as a conjunction and equal to and ... either. As a pronoun it is ni el uno ni el otro. Standing as the first word in a sentence neither is translated tampoco.

I do not look into the mirror, neither to-day nor ever.

No miro en el espejo, ni hoy ni nunca.—ECHEGARAY.

He wouldn't help him, neither would he help me.

No quería ayudarle a él, tampoco quería ayudarme a mí.

I showed him the drawings. Neither of them pleased him.

Le mostré los dibujos. Ni el uno ni el otro le ha contentado.

101. The conjunction because is porque. The prepositional phrase because of is translated a causa de. Por with the infinitive is often used for porque with a clause, and may be used for a causa de when the object of the preposition is a participial phrase.

I won't give you any more because you have enough already.

No te daré más porque ya tienes bastante.

Because of the rain the country was flooded.

A causa de la lluvia estaba inundado el campo.

That tribe obeyed him and respected him because he was (because of his being) older.

Aquella caterva le obedecía y respetaba por ser él mayor.



(a) 1. No quiero que Vds. me ofrezcan dinero. 2. No le he devuelto el dinero que tuvo a bien prestarme.—Ni yo tampoco. 3. O se lo ha llevado él o el hermano de él, pero ni el uno ni el otro quiere confesarlo. 4. ¿Qué necesita usted?—Un martillo para arrancar estos clavos. 5. O el uno o el otro libro la contentará. 6. Por haber caído tanta nieve no quiero que salgan los chicos esta mañana. 7. A causa de la huelga de los empleados del tranvía tuvimos que ir a pie. 8. O los nuevos o los viejos debe usted mandarme. 9. Yo quisiera conocer a ese señor porque me dicen que es de gran talento. 10. Por ser tan tarde, no querían los padres partir sin los niños.

(b) 1. Well, how many more do you want and how much do you want to pay for them? 2. Do you want to see the picture that they were talking about? 3. Either the father or the mother must be ill. 4. Neither of my friends can speak Spanish. 5. I have to serve as (de) interpreter because I speak the language fluently. 6. Because of the illness of my father, neither my mother nor I were able to go. 7. Because I have a cold, I want you to read this letter aloud to the others. 8. These plants want water. Do you want to water them now? 9. Have you seen either of my sons to-day? Yes. I just saw the older one with three other boys. 10. I want you to tell me what you want, either by telephone or by letter. 11. Neither her father nor her mother wanted her to go out, because it is so cold. She didn't want to go, either.


Cuando hay alegría, todo se hace bien.[33]

103. The verb to wonder is variously rendered. In the sense of to be surprised it is generally extrañar or admirarse. As a synonym of should or would like to know it may be translated quisiera saber, or tener curiosidad por saber. In the sense of to be thinking or asking one's self, the Spanish uses preguntarse.

No one wondered at the girl's illness.

Nadie extrañó la indisposición de la niña.—JUAN VALERA.

I don't wonder that they say certain things.

No me admiro de que digan ciertas cosas.


I was wondering if I should have time to go before they came.

Yo me preguntaba si tendría el tiempo de ir antes que llegasen ellos.

I wonder who did this.

Yo quisiera saber quién habrá hecho eso.

The verb to wonder is, however, often best translated by the future of probability, as illustrated in the following examples:

Has he come yet, I wonder?

¿Habrá venido ya?

I wonder if it is time yet.

¿Será ya la hora?

I wonder who that man is.

¿Quién será ese hombre?

Cisneros (observing them curiously). I wonder what's going on?

Cisneros (observándolos con curiosidad). ¿Qué pasará?


This form is used when the English sentence would make complete sense without wonder.

104. In English the one has three translations. When used in contrast with the other, it is rendered el uno. Before the relative who or that it is el. In adjective phrases such as the new one, the old one, etc., the word one is omitted.

Both boys were busy. The one was helping his mother, the other, his father.

Ambos muchachos estaban ocupados. El uno ayudaba a su madre, el otro a su padre.

You are not going from my house. They are the ones that are going.

Tú no te vas de mi casa. Los que se van son ellos.


And the one that hurts most, is it above or below?

Y la que le duele más, ¿es de arriba o de abajo?


You take the big ones. The little one is mine.

Tome usted los grandes. El pequeño es mío.


(a) 1. No hay peor sordo que el que no quiere oír. 2. El hombre se extrañó el no hallar a su hijo. 3. Yo soy la que se va de aquí. 4. Los relojes andan desacordes, porque cuando el de la Puerta del Sol da las ocho el del Palacio suele dar las ocho y media. 5. ¿Qué hora será? 6. Envíeles a ellos los viejos y a mí los nuevos. 7. Se preguntaba si valía la pena de continuar. 8. Vió que el paisano tenía dos caballos, el uno muy gordo y el otro muy flaco, y se admiraba de la diferencia. 9. ¿Qué revista será aquél que lee con tanto interés? 10. Llaman a la puerta. ¿Quién será a estas horas?

(b) 1. I was wondering if the dog was mad. 2. Take the big one. The little ones aren't worth anything. 3. Who opened the door, I wonder? Please shut it. 4. I don't wonder that you don't like that dress. The other one is much prettier. 5. I don't mean that man. I mean the one who was here before. 6. Everybody wondered what he would be like. 7. Will they want this before I return, I wonder? 8. I wonder at their silence. They must know that I am anxious to know how they stood the journey. 9. The one that you have in your hand is mine. The one that you dropped is my sister's. 10. They tell me that I must choose either this one or that one. I wonder why I can't have the one that I like best.


Lo que no puede hacer un gitano, no hay quien lo haga sobre la tierra.[34]—ALARCÓN.


(a) 1. I couldn't help smiling when I saw him stand up. 2. Who is that woman standing in the doorway? 3. While it lasted the boy kept (tenia) his eyes fixed on the judge's face. 4. The old man was sitting behind the counter, reading aloud. 5. He is not to blame. Nor I either. 6. What do you want (ask) for the half of what you have brought? 7. I can't stand so much heat. 8. We sat down to wait until they came. 9. Let's see! You told him to come and see me as soon as he arrived, didn't you? 10. They looked very happy sitting there in the shade of the big trees.

(b) 1. That is the one who was at the door when the accident occurred. 2. I have half of the money saved already. 3. As he has read many histories, he can cite many examples. 4. It will be better to put the larger ones in another place. Here in this corner. 5. I wonder if this one is as large as that one. 6. I heard from your companions that you had been dismissed. 7. Have you heard from home lately? 8. As for those two houses, neither is large enough for my family. 9. As I approached the man, I saw that he was getting uneasy. 10. Because the horse was older than he had said, they did not want to buy it.

(c) 1. Well, as the one that I want is not here, I must take the one that I have. 2. Will you see to the dessert while I am getting the rest of the dinner? 3. As either one is large enough, will you take this one and leave me the other one? 4. I wonder if the postman has come yet. 5. They are erecting a large building at the corner of our street. I wonder what it will be. 6. He wondered that you had not arrived yet. 7. Tell him that he must do it himself. 8. They are tearing down the church that has stood at that corner for so many years. 9. I was in Naples when the last eruption of Vesuvius occurred. That was last year. 10. I heard last night that the governor himself would come as soon as he returned.


No creer en nada es estar loco.[35]

107. The verb to take, in its simplest meaning of to carry, is rendered llevar or tomar.

I have to take this book to school.

Tengo que llevar (tomar) este libro a la escuela.

(a) In the sense of to use, tomar is the correct translation.

The lemonade is rather sour. Take some mare sugar.

Es algo agria la limonada. Tome usted más azúcar.

(b) To take off, meaning to remove, is quitar(se); meaning to imitate, it is translated imitar or remedar. To take out is sacar.

He took off his hat and from it took out a roll of banknotes.

Se quitó el sombrero y de él sacó un rollo de billetes de banco.


Without taking his eyes off them, he slowly continued his way.

Sin quitarles de encima la vista, siguió lentamente el camino.


(c) To take leave of is despedirse de; to take steps is dar pasos; to take for granted is dar por supuesto.

Before taking leave of me, she wanted to give me the letter.

Antes de despedirse de mí, quiso darme la carta.


I take it for granted that you will take the necessary steps to prevent it.

Doy por supuesto que Vd. dará los pasos necesarios para impedirlo.

(d) To take place is rendered tener lugar or verificarse; to take possession of is translated apoderarse de.

The funeral took place yesterday and the heirs have now taken possession of the property of the deceased.

El entierro tuvo lugar (se verificó) ayer y ya se han apoderado de los bienes del difunto los herederos.

(e) To take up room is rendered ocupar lugar or espacio; to take care of, cuidar de.

I'm going to get rid of this table. It takes up too much room.

Voy a deshacerme de esta mesa. Ocupa demasiado lugar.

Don't worry. God will take care of you and of your family.

No te apures. Dios cuidará de ti y de los tuyos.

(f) To take advantage of is rendered aprovecharse de.

Take advantage of all the opportunities that come to you.

Aprovéchese Vd. de cuantas oportunidades se le presenten.

(g) To take back in the sense of to return is translated devolver; meaning to retract it is rendered retractar.

Take this letter back to them and tell them that we want them to take back what they say in it.

Devuélvales Vd. esta carta y dígales que queremos que retracten lo que en ella escriben.


(a) 1. Dios que cuida de los insectos cuidará de mí y de mi familia. 2. Allí había muchas personas que se habían apoderado de la chimenea. 3. No se quite Vd. el abrigo que aquí en este cuarto hace mucho frío. 4. Me aproveché de la oportunidad para contarle lo ocurrido. 5. El cuento de la desgracia ocupó el primer plan del diario de la mañana. 6. Tenemos mucho gusto en mandarle lo que nos ha pedido. 7. La recepción que se verificó con motivo de la visita del insigne autor, atrajó una brillante asistencia. 8. ¡Cuidado! tengo que devolver ese jarro a la vecina y no quiero que me lo quiebres antes. 9. El espacio delante de la plataforma fué ocupado por los bancos de los alumnos. 10. ¡Lléveselo! pero ha de ser ahora mismo.

(b) 1. Take this back and tell them that it is not the one I asked for. 2. I shall take advantage of your offer. 3. This will take up more room than that. 4. I think they are taking it for granted that we are going with them. 5. Don't you think that you ought to take off your shoes? 6. The trunk took up so much room in the car that there was no room for me. 7. Tell them that I will take charge (cargarse) of all this so that they may take advantage of this time to go and take leave of their friends. 8. It was evident that he took (had) great pleasure in telling the children stories when he took care of them. 9. I think he will take possession of the property next week.


Nada existe en la tierra que no sirve para algo.[36]

109. The word ever is translated nunca in a negative sentence. Meaning at any time, it is rendered una or alguna vez. As a suffix it is -quiera, and the compound word is followed by que and the subjunctive.

Now I deserve you less than ever.

Ahora te merezco menos que nunca.—JUAN VALERA.

Do you think he will ever come to see us?

¿Cree usted que venga una vez a vernos?

I would follow her wherever she went.

La seguiría adondequiera que fuese.—PALACIO VALDÉS.

110. The verb to pass meaning to go by (through, past) is rendered pasar por delante de.

They passed me in groups.

Pasaron en grupos por delante de mí.—PALACIO VALDÉS.

(a) In reference to time, pass is rendered transcurrir when used intransitively.

I slept confidently that night and let the next day pass.

Confiado dormí aquella noche y dejé transcurrir el día siguiente.


(b) To pass on meaning to continue one's way is rendered seguir el camino; meaning to hand to, give to it is translated entregar or dar a.

When you have finished with it, pass it on to your friend.

Cuando Vd. haya acabado con él, entréguelo a su amigo.

He stopped to speak to us, but passed on immediately.

Se detuvo a hablarnos, pero siguió en seguida su camino.

(c) To pass (promote) is rendered aprobar; to pass (be promoted) is ser aprobado.

You will pass of course, but let's see if that professor will pass me.

Tu serás aprobado, eso sí, pero a ver si aquel profesor me aprobará a mí.

111. The verb to pay or pay for is usually pagar. Meaning to be profitable it is rendered ser provechoso.

There were many there that paid nothing because they had nothing.

Muchos había allí que nada pagaron porque nada tenían.

Everybody knows that his mines did not pay.

Todo el mundo sabe que sus minas no le eran provechosas.

(a) To pay attention to has two translations. Meaning to listen to it is poner atención, meaning to heed, act upon, mind it is hacer caso de.

They never paid any attention to him when he was talking to them.

Nunca le ponían atención cuando les hablaba.

She used to talk to his aunt without paying any attention to him.

Hablaba con su tía sin hacer caso de él.—PALACIO VALDÉS.


(a) 1. De todo eso no hice caso sino que siguiera adelante. 2. Ha pasado muchas noches entregado al trabajo. 3. No hay que afirmar que pasamos por la casa de Pepita. 4. ¿No querían nunca hacerlo sin que Vd. los ayudase? 5. Por dondequiera que vayamos tenemos que llevarlos a ellos. 6. ¿Cómo quieres aprender si nunca pones atención? 7. Parece que no tienen la intención de pagarle. 8. No le haga Vd. caso que se está burlando de Vd., nada más. 9. Transcurrió la noche sin que nadie en la casa lograra dormirse. 10. En plena noche los oimos pasar por delante de la casa.

(b) 1. We have never had the money to pay for the house although we have always wanted to buy it. 2. Do you know that man who has just passed the house? 3. My son has written me that he has passed all his examinations. 4. I don't believe that he will ever finish what he is doing. 5. Whoever did this knows how to do it well. 6. Don't pay any attention to them. 7. Whatever book you choose, pay cash for it (pagar al contado). 8. I have finished with this and now I am going to pass it on to my younger brother. 9. Did you ever see the portrait of my father that that painter painted? 10. And so a quarter of an hour passed, and the procession passed the house again.


La fe en una gran idea es la vida de la inteligencia.[37]

113. The verb to turn has many translations. To turn (round) is volver or volverse.

He turned and looked him straight in the face.

Se volvio y le miró cara a cara.—EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

All heads turned towards him.

Todas las cabezas se volvieron hacia él.—JUAN VALERA.

(a) In the sense of to grow, get, become, to turn is rendered ponerse.

Auntie turned all the colors of the rainbow (literally, twenty-five colors).

La tía se puso de veinticinco colores.—PALACIO VALDÉS.

(b) In the sense of to go round or to make go round, turn is dar vuelta(s). In the phrase, to turn the corner, the verb may be translated doblar.

He was turning the wheel.

Daba vueltas a la rueda.

It was two o'clock when he turned (the corner) into Reconquista Street.

Eran las dos cuando dobló por la calle Reconquista.


Upon turning the corner he found himself in a small plaza.

Al dar vuelta a la esquina se halló en una plazuela.

(c) To turn to in the sense of to address, appeal to, have recourse to is rendered dirigirse a. Where the appeal is specifically for help, recurrir a may be used.

"Now you have heard it," he continued, turning to the young lady.

Ya lo ha oido Vd.,—prosiguió dirigiéndose a la señorita.


Since my family will not help me, I turn to my friends.

Ya que mi familia no quiere ayudarme, me dirijo a mis amigos.

(d) To turn over (invert) is invertir; meaning to revolve it is revolver.

When he turned the plate over he found what had been hidden.

Al invertir el plato halló lo escondido.

But, man alive, I can hardly turn over myself!

¡Pero, hombre de Dios, si apenas puedo revolverme yo!


(e) To turn out (prove to be) is rendered resultar ser or resultar alone.

It turns out that you are the father of a genius.

Resulta que eres el padre de un genio.—ECHEGARAY.

Meaning to put out, expel, dismiss, it is rendered expeler, echar, poner de patitas en la calle, or despedir.

This servant is absolutely worthless. I am going to turn him out.

Este criado no vale absolutamente nada. Voy a ponerle de patitas en la calle.

(f) To turn into (become) is rendered convertirse en or cambiar(se) en.

I told the children the story of the prince who turned into a dragon.

Conté a los niños el cuento del principe que se cambió en un dragón.

The witch turned the princess into a cat.

La bruja cambió a la princesa en un gato.

We took the furniture out of the room and turned it into a gymnasium.

Sacamos los muebles del cuarto y lo convertimos en (un) gimnasio.

(g) To turn up in the sense of to appear is rendered aparecer, llegar, dejarse ver; in the sense of to happen it may be rendered suceder, ocurrir, acaecer.

That man always turns up when he is least wanted. I hope something will turn up to keep him from coming to-day.

Aquel hombre aparece siempre cuando menos queremos verle. ¡Ojalá que suceda algo que le impida el venir hoy!


(a) 1. La alfombra se había puesto roja donde la había manchado el ácido. 2. Apenas hube dado vuelta a la esquina cuando vi al que buscaba. 3. Dirigiéndome entonces a la señora que acababa de hablar, vi que se había puesto muy pálida. 4. Compramos un erial y resultó que el subsuelo era un inmenso almacén de carbón. 5. Entonces se convirtió en una hada con alas blancas. 6. Al fin cuando íbamos perdiendo la paciencia se dejaron ver. 7. Tan pequeña era la habitación que apenas podíamos revolvernos en ella. 8. Me he puesto a revolver papeles. 9. Mi buen deseo resultó ser inútil.

(b) 1. I wonder how that affair will turn out. 2. He turned the glass upside down. 3. Turn them all out if they bother you. 4. It is not worth while to do that, because they will surely turn up again. 5. They have turned that building into a school for the blind. 6. When you turn the next corner you will see the building that you are looking for. 7. The poor woman does not know to whom to turn in her distress. 8. The leaves are turning yellow and red. They will fall soon. 9. He was turning the handle of a little organ that belonged to a blind man. 10. All eyes turned in the direction of the speaker.


Vale más errar por generosidad que acertar por egoísmo.[38]

115. English can and could, translated by the present and past tenses of poder when possibility is implied, are differently translated to express conjecture. In the latter case, Spanish uses the future and conditional of the verbs that in English are the complements of can and could. The examples should be very carefully studied and compared with those given under section 102.

What can be the matter with the poor boy?

¿Qué tendrá el pobrecillo?—RAMOS CARRIÓN.

Where could Telmo be hidden?

¿Dónde estaría metido Telmo?—EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

The first man who made a friend—what could he have been thinking about?

El primer hombre que se hizo amigo—¿en qué estaría pensando?TOMAYO Y BAUS.

"It wasn't Peter apparently." "It wasn't? Who could it have been?"

No era Pedro a lo visto.—¿No? ¿Quién estaría?


Note that the conditional translates both could be and could have been.

116. To ring is tocar as a transitive and sonar as an intransitive verb.

We rang twice before we heard the bell ring within the house.

Tocamos dos veces antes de oír sonar la campanilla dentro de la casa.

At that moment a shot rang out very close.

En aquel mismo instante sonó un tiro muy próximo.


117. English but as a synonym of however is pero; as an adversative conjunction it is rendered sino; in the sense of only or except it may be rendered sino or no ... más de (que).

He is not here at present, but I am expecting him at any moment.

No está aquí en este momento, pero le estoy esperando de un momento a otro.

She is not Spanish, but Italian.

No es española sino italiana.

No one knows it but you.

Nadie lo sabe sino tú.

Remember that now you have no father but this gentleman.

Acuérdate de que ya no tienes más padre que este señor.



(a) 1. ¿Quién será?—exclamó la joven que se había puesto pálida. 2. ¿Sería mi hermano el que ha hecho eso? 3. Sonó la campanilla, pero el viejo no la oyó por ser él sordo. 4. ¿Serán ya las tres? ¿Sonaría la campanilla sin que nosotros la oyésemos? 5. Voy a mandarle todo lo que me ha pedido menos este libro, que no puedo pasarme sin él. 6. Me dijo que a las doce de la noche había sonado la campanilla del teléfono. ¿Quién me telefonaría a esas horas? 7. Ya no le queda más dinero que la pequeña suma que heredó de su padre el año pasado. 8. ¿Sería el vecino que me robó el caballo? 9. Es la primera vez que ha faltado a la cita. ¿Estará mala? 10. Yo no sabía de quien sería el bolsillo que acababa de hallar. 11. No hay quien toque las campanas como usted.

(b) 1. Ring the bell and when they open the door ask for him. 2. Who can that man be? There is no one here who knows him. 3. We heard the coins ring as they fell on the table. 4. He speaks no language but English, but he reads Spanish and French. 5. I have no friend but you in the whole city. 6. Could it have been your father who telephoned you last night? 7. Where can my brother be? I hope he has not lost his way. 8. I was wondering if he could have taken them. She could not have lifted them. 9. We had nothing but bread and butter to eat, but it was enough as we were not hungry. 10. What can he be reading that seems to interest him so much? Generally he reads nothing but the daily paper.


No necesitamos ser serios para ser buenos.[39]

119. The verb to put in its simplest meaning of to place, lay, set, is poner. It has a very large number of idiomatic uses that call for different translations. Many of these may be learned easily by paraphrasing put. So, to put away, put by (save), guardar, ahorrar; to put back (retard), retardar; (return a thing to where it was), volver a poner una cosa en donde estaba; to put out (extend), extender; (extinguish), apagar; (expel), expeler, echar; (disturb, trouble, annoy), estorbar, molestar; to put down (make a note of), apuntar, poner por escrito; (to suppress), suprimir.

Don't scold me. Put yourself in my place.

No me reprenda usted. Póngase en mi caso.


I picked up the money and put it in my pocket.

Recogí el dinero y lo guardé en el bolsillo.—JUAN VALERA.

They say that he has a lot of money put away.

Dicen que tiene ahorrado muchísimo dinero.

We will put down the names in this little book.

Apuntaremos los nombres en este librito.

I shall not be satisfied until they have put it down in writing.

No quedaré satisfecho hasta que lo hayan puesto por escrito.

Can it be the change of teachers that has put him back so much?

¿Será el cambio de maestros que le ha retardado tanto?

(a) To put on is translated by the reflexive ponerse.

They are torn, I know, but I put them on fully aware of it.

Estan rotas, sí, pero me las he puesto con todo conocimiento.


Note.—Cf. to have on, tener puesto, -a, -os, -as.

They had their hats on.

Tenían puestos los sombreros.

(b) To put in (add) is añadir; to put in mind of is rendered recordar; to put in time is gastar or pasar tiempo.

This house puts me in mind of the house where I was born. I should like to put in a few weeks here.

Esta casa me recuerda la casa en donde nací yo. Quisiera pasar unas semanas aquí.

The lemonade is not very sweet. Put in a little more sugar.

No es muy dulce la limonada. Añada usted un poco de azúcar.


(a) 1. Apunte usted todo lo que yo le voy a decir pues ya sé que tiene Vd. corta memoria. 2. Vuelva Vd. a poner todas esas cosas en donde estaban. 3. Guarda tus libros en este cajón. 4. Ya van a apagar las luces. Salgamos antes de que nos echen a la calle. 5. Me olvidé de poner por escrito sus señas en cuanto me las dió. 6. Ponte este vestido. Te cae más bien que aquél. 7. La llegada inesperada de tantos amigos a la vez estorbó no poco a la señora. 8. Extendió la mano para recibir la limosna. 9. Apaga esa luz que aquí se puede ver bastante bien sin ella. 10. Si, fuera yo usted no me estorbaría por ellos.

(b) 1. I must put it down before I forget it. 2. The children have gone to bed without putting their toys away. 3. Put a little more water in (a) the tea. 4. There is much sickness in that family. They put it down (atribuir) to the water from that well. 5. We hoped to finish before night, but the rain has put us back. 6. Shall I put the lamp on this table? (Use present tense of verb.) 7. If we don't let her know that we are coming, we may put her out. 8. He put the knife back into his pocket when he saw that we didn't need to cut the string. 9. The wind had put out all the lights, but it had not put out the fire. 10. Do you think they will be able to put down the revolution that has broken out in the southern provinces?


Do (donde) el honor muerto está no hay ya de vida esperanza.[40]
Gil y Zárate.

121. To strike in the sense of to hit is pegar; to strike against is dar contra; to strike the hour is dar la hora; to strike (cease work) is declararse en huelga.

It was I who struck him the blow with the ax.

Yo fuí quien le pegué el hachazo.—JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

Has it struck ten yet?

¿Han dado ya las diez?

He struck his head against the door and hurt himself cruelly.

Dió con la cabeza contra la puerta y se lastimó cruelmente.

All the employes of the railroads have struck.

Todos los empleados de las empresas ferroviarias se han declarado en huelga.

122. Spanish vez meaning time (see section 59) occurs in many adverbial phrases which in English do not always contain the word time. So, otra vez, again; a la vez, at once, at the same time, together; de una vez y para siempre, once and for all; tal vez, perhaps; en vez de, instead of; rara vez, rarely, seldom; cada vez más, more and more.

That surprised me and at the same time amused me.

Eso me sorprendió y a la vez me hacía gracía.


Of thirteen or fourteen stones all thrown together, wouldn't one hit him?

De trece o catorce piedras todas lanzadas a la vez, ¿no había de tocarle una?—EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

I will answer you once and for all.

Yo os responderé de una vez y para siempre.—ESCRICH.

He rarely entered the Casino. He had no time to spare.

Entró rara vez en el Casino. No le sobraba tiempo.


Instead of saying "I'm not going," I take my hat and go.

En vez de decir—no voy—tomo el sombrero y me voy.


And so once here he insisted that we should stay a few days.

Con que una vez aquí, se empeñó en que quedásemos unos pocos días.—ECHEGARAY.

123. The verb to start is rendered comenzar, empezar, principiar, ponerse a, when the meaning is to begin. Meaning to set in motion it is translated poner en movimiento. In the sense of to leave, depart, it is rendered ponerse en marcha or en camino, or partir. To start from is rendered arrancar de.

"With much pleasure," I said, and I started to unload.

Con mucho gusto, dije, y me puse a descargar.—ALARCÓN.

Scarcely had he started the engine when it stopped again.

No bien hubo puesto en movimiento la máquina cuando volvió a pararse.

The train starts from the north station.

El tren arranca de la estación del norte.

The vehicle started at full speed.

El vehículo se puso en marcha a toda velocidad.



(a) 1. Es necesario que no salgamos a la vez. 2. En vez de marcharse por la noche se largó de madrugada. 3. No necesita usted hablarle otra vez. 4. Es algo que tal vez sea una alucinación, pero lo he notado. 5. Me pegó sin que yo le hubiera dicho nada. 6. En los últimos meses del año pasado se declararon en huelga más de siete mil obreros. 7. El tren estaba para ponerse en marcha. 8. Al oír lo que le dijimos nosotros se puso a correr hacia la aldea. 9. Antes arrancaba el tren de esta estación, pero ya no. 10. Al oír que daban las tres en el reloj del cabildo, todos se pusieron a caminar hacia el palacio.

(b) 1. It is not right for them to strike now. 2. Starting from (a partir de) to-day I must start for school at eight o'clock. 3. Half an hour later they succeeded in starting the machine. 4. Perhaps you will have more time next time. 5. She became more and more tired as she approached the end of her journey. 6. Do you remember the last time the coal miners struck? 7. It strikes me (se me ocurre) that it would be better to finish it now once and for all. 8. Instead of starting at half-past seven they waited until after it had struck eight. 9. They all called me at once, but I was more and more determined not to go with them. 10. He struck him a blow with a whip, but the horse would not start.


Para los grandes intentos son los grandes corazones.[41]
Nuñez de Arce.

125. The verb to do is generally hacer. Used as an auxiliary in interrogative or negative sentences it is untranslated.

Now that he is here let him see what he has to do.

Ya que está aquí que vea lo que tiene que hacer.


Didn't I tell you? Do you think she is happy?

¿No te lo decía yo? ¿Crees que sea feliz?—JOSÉ DE LARRA.

(a) In the sense of to be enough, to do is rendered bastar. Meaning to serve as, be good for, it is translated servir (de).

That will do. You have taken too much time already.

Basta. Ya ha ocupado usted demasiado tiempo.

I have no letter paper. Will this postcard do?

No tengo papel de cartas. ¿Servirá esta tarjeta postal?

If it rains, this newspaper will do for an umbrella.

Si llueve, este diario nos servirá de paraguas.

126. In addition to the adverbial expressions given in the preceding lessons the following are important:

by day, de díain the afternoon, por la tarde
by night, de nochein the evening (or at night), por la noche
at daybreak, al amanecerday by day, from day to day, de día en día
at nightfall, al anochecerat a little after six, a eso de las seis, or a las seis y pico
in the morning, por la mañanaabout six o'clock, como a las seis
a week from to-day, de hoy en ocho díaswithin a few minutes, in a few minutes, dentro de pocos minutos, a los pocos minutos
two weeks from to-day, de hoy en quince días       
at six o'clock, a las seis
at six o'clock sharp, a las seis en punto

Note.—When the hour is mentioned, the phrases in the morning, in the afternoon, etc., are rendered de la mañana, de la tarde. So at six in the morning, a las seis de la mañana.

At night there were banquets on board.

Por la noche hubo banquetes abordo.—BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

Within two months after entering the army he was a sergeant.

A los dos meses de haber entrado en el ejército era sargento.


One afternoon at a little after five the robbers returned.

Una tarde a eso de las cinco los ladrones regresaron.


Day by day he feared that she would find him out.

De día en día temía que le descubriese.—BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.


(a) 1. Todas las noches a eso de las once me dirigía hacia aquella calle. 2. A los pocos días supe que habían llegado. 3. ¿Qué te parece? ¿Servirá éste? 4. Por la mañana trabajo, por la tarde y por la noche me divierto. 5. Le dije que tendría mucho gusto en hacer lo que me acababa de pedir. 6. Al amanecer llegó uno de los soldados para decirnos que la compañía se pondría en marcha a las ocho en punto. 7. Como son malos de día y de noche no tienen más que malos pensamientos. 8. Los alimentos que tenemos son pocos y malos, pero creo que bastarán para los que tienen mucha hambre. 9. ¿Lo han comprado ellos? No quieren comprarlo? 10. Esta roca llana nos servirá de mesa. 11. Tenemos que hacerlo antes de hoy en quince días.

(b) 1. I want him to be here about eight o'clock. 2. I shall not have time to do all that I wanted to do. It is a little after one now. 3. I have only a small knife. Will that do? 4. It has struck four. Didn't they say that they would be here at four exactly? 5. This newspaper will do for a tablecloth. 6. At what time did the accident occur? At a little after six in the morning. 7. Day by day they had more to do. They worked more by day than by night. 8. He wants to wait until a week from Tuesday, but that will never do (never is here only an emphatic not). 9. This ink won't do. It's green. 10. They woke me a little bit after eight to ask me what they should do.


La mentira es siempre cobarde.[42]


(a) 1. It is the one who told you a little while ago that you had dropped something. 2. I don't like children. They turn everything upside down. 3. What can he be doing that he doesn't come? 4. "Can the dog be mad?" the man wondered. 5. Who could have spilled the milk? 6. Take this. It takes up too much room in this drawer. 7. The boy took off his hat when the old man spoke to him. 8. Don't you ever pass my house on the way to your office? 9. It is a pity that he will not take advantage of your offer. 10. Why do you never pay attention to what I say to you?

(b) 1. I advised him not to pay for it, but he paid no attention to my advice. 2. It turned out that they wanted to start earlier. 3. They were small and at the same time they cost too much. 4. Perhaps if you turn the glass over you will find what you are looking for. 5. At that very moment we saw him turn the corner and come toward us. 6. To whom shall I turn, now that my best friend has deserted me? 7. Has your purse turned up yet? 8. He arrived at twelve-thirty sharp, and told us that he had taken steps to prevent any accident. 9. It is a good rule to work by day and rest by night. 10. Has it struck one yet? Well, then, we need not wait for them any longer.

(c) 1. This is the old man who used to ring the church bell. 2. The workmen in that factory are not satisfied with their pay. It is feared that they will strike. 3. But do you think it could have been my book that was burned? 4. Put the things here and don't put yourself out any more for me. 6. It's too bad that it is so cold. This will put the crops back. 7. Put your shoes on. It is too cold to wear slippers. 8. Are you going to put on your white dress? I don't like the one you have on. 9. That will do for the present. But we shall want a larger one later. 10. I don't like to work at night when I am sleepy.


(a) 1. Here's my card. And what is your name? 2. Does the noise keep you from sleeping? 3. He hasn't any change, nor I either. 4. I don't like velvet. It isn't stylish any longer. 5. If I have made a mistake, I ask you to pardon me. 6. There! Now everything is ready. 7. Help yourself to vegetables. 8. We are taking this journey just for pleasure. 9. I think we shall get there in time if we hurry. 10. She gets up now and goes out to take a walk in the garden when it is not too cold. 11. What is her husband's mother like? 12. I can't stand the life in the city when it is so hot.

(b) 1. I miss all that we used to have before we left our country home. 2. At each step that we took our shoes got dirtier. 3. The rain beats hard against the window panes. 4. Have you known them long? I have only known them a few months myself. 5. Listen! It's striking twelve. We must go now. 6. My duties have kept me from going to see him. 7. Have you a railroad guide? Yes. Here it is. But it is an old one. 8. Turn into the glass all that the bottle won't hold. 9. We are getting near the city now, aren't we? 10. Will you please come this way, gentlemen. The others are waiting for you. 11. Now we have only two things left to ask for.

(c) 1. Since his son went to war he has to take his morning walk alone. 2. They would never make fun of a poor young man who wanted to help them because he thought they were poor. From day to day she was afraid he would discover it and go away from her. 4. Two days after getting her letter he found out everything that had happened. 5. Let them think what they will, it doesn't matter to me. 6. He wants me now more than ever. I will spend my whole life taking care of him. 7. You needn't do that again. I will do it myself. 8. But I do appreciate this young man! 9. But even so he had succeeded in getting together the respectable sum of forty thousand francs. 10. He got into the automobile hastily, anxious to get away. 11. The vehicle started at full speed because the driver knew that he would have to hurry if he wanted to get to the station before the train left.

(d) 1. Within a few days he felt great esteem for the new employe. 2. Do what you will but don't talk to me about them. 3. One day the oldest daughter appeared at the farm and said she wanted to see her mother. 4. One day when they saw him alone they went up to him and asked him where he was going. 5. It was useless to have teachers come for him. Nobody could get him to study. 6. He told his relatives of the great fortune that he had just inherited. 7. He wished to appear before them as a millionaire. 8. He couldn't stand it that his only daughter should grow up like a boy. 9. If I only had what my father gives me, I shouldn't have much. 10. And finally he asked me the same question, wondering that the idea had not occurred to him before. 11. Can it be that this is the last sentence that we are to write?



to be, estar when location or temporary state is expressed, otherwise ser.

to be able to, poder.

to be about to, estar para.

to be accustomed to, acostumbrarse a, soler (used only in the present and the imperfect, rd. ch.).

to be astonished, pasmarse.

to be at one's ease, estar a sus anchas.

to be back, estar de vuelta.

to be better to, valer más.

to be born, nacer.

to be composed of, constar de.

to be enough, bastar.

to be for (used for), servir para.

to be glad, alegrarse, celebrar.

to be ignorant of, ignorar.

to be out (not at home), no estar en casa.

to be out (lights, fires), estar apagado.

to be out of, without, estar sin.

to be sorry, sentir.

to be up (in the morning), estar levantado.

to be up (not gone to bed), no haberse acostado, velar.


to do away with, abolir, deshacerse de.

to do for oneself (earn one's living), ganar la vida.

to do one's best, esmerarse, hacer lo posible.

to do well (be prosperous), prosperar.

to do without, pasar sin.


to go astray, extraviarse, descarriarse.

to go beyond (be more than), pasar más allá de, exceder.

to go crazy, volverse loco.

to go hard with, pasarle mal a uno.

to go into (be contained in), caber en.

to go off well or ill, salir bien or mal.

to go on (continue), hacer progresos.

to go one's way, seguir el camino.

to go over (review), repasar.

to go to ruin, echarse a perder.

go on! ¡vaya! ¡anda! ¡quita!

how goes it? ¿qué tal?


to get a lesson, aprender or estudiar una lección.

to get at (begin), ponerse a, meterse a.

to get behind (lose ground), perder terreno, quedar atras.

to get hold of (seize), asir, agarrar, apoderarse de.

to get lost, extraviarse, perderse.

to get off (start), partir, marcharse, irse, ponerse en marcha.

to get off (escape), escaparse.

to get off (be exonerated), lograr a exonerarse.

to get on (be successful), tener buena suerte, tener éxito.

to get on with (continue), seguir, continuar (see to get along with).

to get one's bearings, orientarse.

to get over (recover from), recobrar de, restablecerse de (illnesses, losses), dejar (timidity, fear, modesty, etc.).

to get ready, preparar, aparejarse (said of people getting themselves ready).

to get time, hallar el tiempo.

to get tired, cansarse.

to get to be, llegar a ser.

to get wind of, llegar a saber de, recibir informes de.

get up! ¡arriba! (to people), ¡arre! (to animals).


to give evidence, atestiguar.

to give notice or warning, avisar, advertir, (in sense of warn) poner sobre aviso.

to give one's mind to a thing, aplicarse bien a una cosa.

to give the slip to, escapar.

to give trouble, incomodar, hacer que hacer a.


to grow larger, dilatarse, ponerse más grande.

to grow longer, extenderse.

to grow richer, enriquecer, hacerse rico.

to grow young again, remozarse.


to hold (be of the opinion), juzgar, mantener la opinión.

to hold (possess), tener, poseer.

to hold (be valid), ser válido.

to hold (be strong enough not to give way), tener fuerza, tener solidez.

to hold on (not to let go of a thing seized), no dejar una cosa.

to hold off (delay an action), hesitar, diferir una acción.

to hold one's tongue, callarse.

to hold up (raise), alzar, levantar.


to keep accounts, llevar cuentas.

to keep at, persistir en, perseverar en.

to keep awake (not to go to sleep), quedar despierto.

to keep somebody awake, impedir el dormir a alguien.

to keep books (commercial), tener libros, llevar libros.

to keep down (keep in subjection), sujetar.

to keep down (keep in moderation), moderar.

to keep house, manejar la casa.

to keep hold of, no dejar.

to keep in sight, tener a la vista.

to keep in touch with, no perder comunicación con.

to keep out of sight, no dejarse ver.

to keep to, adherir a.

to keep watch, velar, vigilar.

to keep up, no cesar, continuar.


to let (houses, etc.), arrendar, alquilar.

to let a word fall, soltar una palabra.

to let go (loosen hold on), soltar.

to let off (guns, etc.), disparar.

to let off (excuse), excusar, exonerar.


to make a long story short, para abreviar.

to make amends, compensar, indemnizar.

to make a mistake, equivocarse.

to make angry, enfadar, enojar, poner rabioso, dar rabia a.

to make a point clear, sacar en limpio un punto.

to make believe, fingir, pretender.

to make for (contribute toward), contribuir a.

to make good (be successful), tener buena suerta, tener buen éxito.

to make good (prove), probar.

to make good a promise, cumplir con una promesa.

to make head or tail of, llegar a comprender.

to make known, hacer saber, dar a conocer, enterar.

to make light of, no hacer caso de, menospreciar.

to make no difference, no importar.

to make one's escape, escaparse, salvarse huyendo.

to make out (come to understand), llegar a comprender.

to make out (be able to read), descifrar.

to make sense of, hallar sentido a.

to make use of, servirse de, emplear.


to miss an opportunity, perder una oportunidad.

to miss the mark, no dar en el blanco, errar el tiro.

to miss the significance of, no llegar a comprender.

to miss the train, perder el tren.


to put forward (one's best foot), hacer todo lo posible.

to put oneself forward (try to attract notice), tratar de atraer la atención.

to put in (insert), insertar.

to put into words, expresar en palabras.

to put off (postpone), posponer, diferir, dejar por otro tiempo.

to put a person off (make him wait), hacerle a una persona que espere.

to put out of joint, dislocar.

to put to death, matar, quitarle a uno la vida.

to put to flight, hacer huir.

to put together, juntar, acumular.

to put up (put away temporarily), guardar, dejar.

to put up at (stop at), pararse en, alojarse en.

to put up fruits, conservar frutas, hacer conservas.

to put up money, avanzar dinero.

to put up to (leave decision to), dejar a.

to put up to (incite to), incitar a, instigar a.

to put up with (bear, suffer), sufrir, aguantar, tolerar.


to run, correr.

to run across (find), dar con, tropezar con.

to run a machine, manejar una máquina.

to run against (bump into), dar contra, chocar con.

to run against (oppose), oponer a.

to run ahead, ir or correr adelante.

to run along (be situated along), extenderse a lo largo de.

to run away, escaparse, huirse.

to run away with a thing, llevarse una cosa.

to run away with (get the better of), apoderarse de.

to run back, volver corriendo.

to run down (clock or machine), parar.

to run down (find, overtake), hallar, alcanzar.

to run down (speak ill of), calumniar, enviliar.

to run in the blood, estar en el sangre.

to run out (be all used up), acabarse, concluirse.

to run out of, estar sin, acabársele a uno.

to run over a list, repasar una lista, mirar atentamente.

to run up an account, incurrir una cuenta.

to run up figures, sumar números.

to run up prices, aumentar precios.

to run up and down, correr por todas partes.


to stand the expense of, pagar los gastos de.

to stand alone, estar solo, ser el único de su clase.

to stand aloof, mantenerse lejos.

to stand by (be near), estar cerca, hallarse presente.

to stand by (help), ayudar, auxiliar.

to stand for, (represent), representar.

to stand for (signify, indicate), significar, indicar.

to stand in one's light (literally), quitarle a uno la luz; (figuratively), causarle a uno perjuicio.

to stand in need of, necesitar, tener necesidad de.

to stand one in good stead, ser útil a uno, ser de buen provecho a uno.

to stand off (be at some distance), mantenerse a algun distancia.

to stand on tip-toe, ponerse de puntillas.

to stand to reason, conformar a razón, ser conforme a razón.

to stand up for (defend), defender, apoyar.

to stand upon ceremony, gastar ceremonias or cumplimientos, hacer ceremonias.

to stand upon one's right, insistir en sus derechos.


to set at naught, tener en nada.

to set a time, señalar un tiempo.

to set back (retard), atrasar.

to set forth, show, manifestar, promulgar.

to set off (beautify), embellecer.

to set on (incite), incitar.

to set one thinking, hacerle a uno pensar.

to set oneself against something, oponerse a algo.

to set on fire, pegar fuego a.

to set store by, dar importancia a.

to set prices, fijar precios.

to set right, corregir, rectificar.

to set up in business, establecerse.

to set upon (attack), atacar, acometer.


to see a joke, caer en un chiste.

to see (call upon, visit), visitar.

to see into (investigate), examinar, investigar.

to see into (understand), comprender.

to see some one home, acompañar a uno a casa.


to take after (resemble), salir a.

to take an oath, jurar, hacer juramento.

to take apart, deshacer, separar, despegar.

to take a liking to, aficionarse a, llegar a querer.

to take a course in, cursar.

to take a hint, darse por entendido.

to take a photograph, sacar una fotografía, retratar.

to take fright, asustarse.

to take a trip, hacer un viaje.

to take care, cuidar.

to take care of, cuidar, tener cuidado de.

to take charge of, encargarse de, tomar a su cargo.

to take down (make a note of), apuntar, hacer apuntes.

to take for granted, dar por supuesto.

to take hold (seize), agarrar, asir.

to take hold (assume responsibilities), cargarse de, tomar a su cargo.

to take in (include), incluir.

to take in (deceive), engañar.

to take something into one's head, ponérsele a uno en la cabeza, occurrírsele a uno.

to take long, necesitar mucho tiempo, tardar en.

to take notice, poner atención, hacer caso de.

to take offense, ofenderse, picarse.

to take out, sacar.

to take pains, darse pena, esmerarse en.

to take pleasure in, tener gusto en.

to take to pieces, hacer pedazos, deshacer, despegar.


to strike one (occur to one), occurrírsele a uno.

to strike a bargain, hacer un convenio, cerrar un trato.

to strike a balance, hacer un balance.

to strike at, lanzar un golpe a.

to strike back, dar golpe por golpe.

to strike home (hit a sensitive spot), dar en el hito.

to strike out (cancel), borrar, cancelar.

to strike up a tune, tocar or tañer una melodia.


to turn away (refuse admission to), no dejar entrar, hacer a uno que se vaya.

to turn down (refuse), negar, rehusar.

to turn down (fold over), doblar, plegar.

to turn in (deliver, hand in), entregar.

to turn off (water, gas, etc.), cerrar la canilla or la llave del agua, del gas, etc.

to turn one's head, trastornarle a uno la cabeza.

to turn over a new leaf, enmendarse, empezar a vivir vida nueva.

to turn over to, traspasar a, transferir a.

to turn to account or advantage, sacar utilidad, ventaja or provecho de.

to turn upon (attack), atacar.

to turn upon (depend upon), depender de, fundarse en.


to look down upon (despise), menospreciar, despreciar.

to look out (be on one's guard), estar sobre aviso.

to look over (examine), examinar, repasar.

to look to (for help, favors, etc.), esperar de.

to look up to (respect), respetar.

to look well (seem to be in good health), parecer estar bien de salud.

to look well (have a pleasing appearance) (clothes), sentar bien, caer bien.

to look well (seem fitting or proper), ser conveniente.


to pay back (take revenge for), pagar en la misma moneda.

to pay cash, pagar al contado.

to pay attention to a lady, cortejar or galantear a una señora.

to pay a call, hacer una visita.

to pay in full, pagar por completo.

to pay on the installment plan, pagar a plazos.

to pay off employees, despedir or despachar empleados.


to pass on to (hand over to), entregar a.

to pass off (disappear), disiparse.

to pass off as (treat as), tratar de.

to pass oneself off as, darse por.

to pass sentence, pronunciar sentencia.


to play a trick or joke, hacer una mala pasada or jugada.

to play the fool, hacer el tonto; so also to play or act blind, ciego; deaf, sordo; lame, cojo, etc.

to play truant, hacer novillos.


A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, Y, Z


a, at, to, in, by, from.

abajo, under, below, down.

abatir, to overthrow, defeat, cast down.

abecedario, m., alphabet.

abeja, f., bee.

abordo, on board.

abrigo, m., overcoat.

abrir, to open.

absolutamente, absolutely.

absurdo, -a, absurd.

absurdos, m. pl., absurdities.

abuela, f., grandmother.

abuelito, m., granddaddy.

abuelo, m., grandfather.

acá, here (with verb of motion).

acabar, to finish; —— de (followed by the infin.), to have just; —se, to give out (section 50), be exhausted.

acaecer, to happen.

aceptar, to accept.

acercarse, to approach.

acertar, to succeed.

ácido, m., acid.

aclarar, to clear up, explain.

acompañar, to accompany, go with.

acordarse, to remember.

acostarse, to go to bed.

acuerdo, m., accord, harmony; de—— con, in accord with.

adelante, forward; de ahí en—— , from this time on; en—— , henceforth, from now on.

adiós, good-by.

admirarse (de), to wonder at (section 103).

¿adónde?, where to?

adondequiera, wherever.

adorar, to adore, love.

adquirir, to acquire.

adverso, -a, adverse.

advertir, to advise, give notice of, warn.

afición (a), f., fondness, liking for, inclination toward.

afirmar, to affirm, assert.

afortunado, -a, fortunate.

agradable, agreeable.

agradar (a), to please (section 67).

agradecer, to oblige.

agradecido, -a, obliged.

agrio, -a, sour.

agua, f., water.

aguantar, to bear, endure, stand.

ahí, there.

ahora, now.

ahorrar, to save, conserve.

aire, m., air.

ajeno, -a, strange, belonging to some one else.

al, contraction of a and el; see a.

ala, f., wing.

alarmar, to alarm.

alcanzar, to overtake.

aldea, f., village.

alegrarse, to be glad.

alegría, f., joy, happiness.

alfrombra, f., carpet.

algo, something, anything, somewhat.

alguien, somebody.

alguno, -a, some, any (algún before m. sing. nouns).

alimento, m., food.

allá, there (with verbs of motion, or to denote indefinite place where).

allí, there, in that place.

almacén, m., store, storehouse.

almuerzo, m., breakfast.

alquilar, to rent.

altitud, f., height, altitude.

alto, -a, high; a lo—— de, at the top of.

alucinación, f., hallucination, fancy.

alumno, m., pupil, student.

amable, m. and f., kind.

amanecer, m., daybreak, dawn.

amar, to love.

ambos, -as, both.

amigo, -a, friend.

amparar, to help, protect.

amplio, -a, ample, wide.

anciana, f., old woman.

ancho, -a, wide.

anchura, f., width.

andar, to walk.

andén, m., platform (station).

anécdota, f., anecdote.

animado, -a, animated, lively, cheerful.

anoche, last night.

anochecer, m., nightfall, twilight.

ante, before, in the presence of; —— todo, above all.

antes, before, formerly; —— que, before (conj.); —— de, before (prep. of time).

anunciar, to announce.

añadir, to add, put in.

año, m., year.

apagar, to put out, extinguish; —se, to go out, be extinguished (section 117).

aparecer, to appear.

apartar, to put aside; —se, to stand aside, get out of the way.

apenas, hardly, scarcely.

apoderarse (de), to take possession of.

apoyo, m., help, support.

aprender, to learn.

aprestar, to get ready, prepare for.

aprobar, to approve, pass (in examination).

aprovecharse (de), take advantage of.

apuntar, to make a note of, put down.

apurarse, to worry.

apuro, m., trouble, difficulty, worry.

aquel, aquella, that (demons. adj.).

aquél, aquélla, that, that one (demons. pron.).

aquí, here (section 29).

árbol, m., tree.

argentino, -a, Argentine.

arrancar, to start (from), to pull out.

arriba, up, above.

asiento, m., seat.

asistencia, f., people present, guests, spectators.

asistir a, to be present at, attend.

asomar, to appear.

asunto, m., affair, business, matter.

atacar, to attack.

atraer, to attract.

atreverse, to dare.

atribuir, to attribute, put down to.

atroz, m. and f., terrible, atrocious.

aun, yet, still (accented when it follows the word modified).

aunque, although.

automóvil, m., automobile.

autor, m., author.

aventura, adventure.

avergonzarse, to be ashamed.

ayer, yesterday.

ayudar, to help.

ayudo, m., aid, help.

azúcar, m., sugar.

azul, m. and f., blue.


bailar, to dance.

bajar, to go down, get down, pull down.

banco, m., bench, seat, bank (financial institution).

banquete, m., banquet.

barato, -a, cheap.

barco, m., bark, boat.

bastante, enough.

bastar, to be enough, do (section 123).

baúl, m., trunk.

Benavente (Jacinto), Spanish author.

besar, to kiss.

bicicleta, f., bicycle.

bien, well, all right.

bienes, m. pl., property, possessions.

billete, m., ticket; —— de banco, banknote.

blanco, -a, white.

blando, -a, soft.

bolsillo, m., purse, pocket.

bondad, f., goodness; tenga usted la—— , please (section 67).

brasero, m., charcoal stove.

brazo, m., arm.

brillante, m. and f., brilliant.

bruja, f., witch.

bueno, -a, good, well, all right.

burla, f., fun, mockery, joke.

burlarse (de), to make fun of, mock at, joke about.

buscar, to look for; mandar a—— , to send for.


caballero, m., gentleman, sir.

caballo, m., horse.

caber (en), to hold, be contained in (section 31).

cabeza, f., head.

cabildo, m., city hall.

cabo, m., cape, headland; llevar a—— , to carry out, end, finish, conclude; al fin y al—— , finally, at last.

cada, each.

caer, to fall; dejar—— , to drop.

café, m., coffee, café, restaurant.

cajón, m., box, drawer.

calor, m., heat; hacer—— , to be hot (weather); tener—— , to be hot (persons).

callarse, to be quiet, stop talking.

calle, f., street.

cambiar, to change; —se en, to turn into (section 113).

cambio, m., change.

caminar, to walk.

camino, m., way (section 48).

campana, f., bell.

campanilla, f., little bell, doorbell.

campo, m., country (as opposed to city; see país).

cansadísimo, -a, very tired.

cansadito, -a, very tired.

cansado, -a, tired.

cansar, to tire.

cantar, to sing.

cántaro, m., pitcher; llover a—s, to rain torrents.

capaz, m. and f., capable.

capitán, m., captain.

cara, f., face; —— a—— , face to face, straight in the face.

carbón, m., coal.

cargo, m., charge.

carta, f., letter.

casa, f., house; en—— , at home; a—— , home (with verbs of motion).

casado, -a, married.

casar, to marry, give in marriage; —se con, to be married to, marry.

caso, m., case, place; hacer—— de, to pay attention to.

Catalán, m., Catalonian (a native of Catalonia, the northeast section of Spain).

caterva, f., tribe, band, number.

causa, f., cause; a—— de, because of.

causar, to cause.

ceder, to yield, give up (section 50).

celebrar, to celebrate, to be glad.

celos: tener—— , to be jealous.

cena, f., supper.

cerca de, near, about.

cerradura, f., lock, keyhole.

cerrar, to close.

cesar (de), to cease, stop.

cesto, m., basket.

ciego, -a, blind.

cielo, m., sky, heaven.

ciento, hundred.

cierto, -a, certain; por—— , indeed, certainly.

cinco, five.

cinta, f., ribbon.

cita, f., quotation, appointment.

ciudad, f., city.

claro, -a, clear.

clavo, m., nail.

clima, m., climate.

cobarde, m. and f., cowardly.

cocina, f., kitchen.

cocinera, f., cook.

coche, m., carriage.

coger, to take, pick up.

color, m., color.

comer, to eat.

comercio, m., business, commerce.

comida, f., meal, dinner.

como, how, as (section 96); ¿cómo? how?

compañero, -a, companion.

compañía, f., company.

compartamento, m., compartment.

compartir, to share.

compasión, f., compassion.

compensar, to compensate, make up for.

cómplice, m., accomplice.

comprar, to buy.

comprender, to understand, see through.

con, with.

concepto, m., conception, opinion.

conciencia, f., conscience.

concierto, m., concert.

concluirse, to come to an end, give out.

conferencia, f., conference.

confesar, to confess.

confiado, -a, confident, trusting in.

conformarse, to agree.

congeniar (con), to agree, get along well with.

conmigo, with me.

conocer, to know, be acquainted with, become acquainted with.

conocimiento, m., knowledge, acquaintance.

conque, and so.

conquistador, m., conqueror.

consentir (en), to consent to, agree to.

construir, to build, construct.

contar, to tell (section 90).

contener, to hold, contain.

contentar, to please (section 66).

continuar, to continue, keep on (section 34).

contra, against.

convertirse (en), to change into, turn into (section 113).

convidar, to invite.

corazón, m., heart.

cordero, -a, lamb.

cortar, to cut.

corto, -a, short.

correo, m., mail, post office.

correr, to run.

cosa, f., thing.

coser, to sew.

crecer, to grow (section 23).

creer, to believe, think.

criado, -a, servant.

criar(se), to grow, grow up (section 23).

cruelmente, cruelly.

cuaderno, m., note-book.

¿cuánto, -a? how much?

¿cuántos, -as? how many?

cuarto, m., room.

cuatro, four.

cuchillo, m., knife.

cuenta, f., bill.

cuento, m., story.

¡cuidado! take care!

cuidarse, to take care.

cura, m., priest.


chaqueta, f., jacket.

charlar, to chat.

chico, -a, small; los—s, the children.

chimenea, f., fireplace.


daño, m., hurt, harm; hacerse—, to hurt oneself.

dar, to give; —— contra, to bump into, run into.

de, of, from, by.

deber, m., duty.

deber, must, ought, should (section 76).

débil, m. and f., weak.

decidirse, to decide, make up one's mind (section 53).

decir, to say, tell (section 90).

declarar, to declare; —se en huelga, to strike (section 121).

defendido, -a, defended.

dejar, to leave (section 37); —de, to cease, stop; let (section 38).

delante, forward; —— de, in front of; de ahí en—— , from now on.

delgado, -a, thin, slender.

demás: lo—— , the rest, what's left; los (las)—— , the others.

demasiado, too, too much.

dentro de, within.

derecho, -a, right (section 75).

desacorde, m. and f., out of harmony, not in agreement.

desaparecer, to disappear.

descansar, —se, to rest.

descubrir, to discover, find out.

desde, since (prep.); —— que, since (conj.).

desear, to desire.

deseo, m., desire.

desgracia, f., misfortune.

deshacerse (de), to get rid of.

desierto, -a, deserted.

deslizarse, to slip.

despacho, m., office.

despedirse, to say farewell, take one's leave (section 107).

después, afterwards.

después de, after (prep.); —— que, after (conj.) (section 26).

detenerse, to stop.

determinado, -a: tener—— , to have made up one's mind.

devolver, to return, give back.

día, m., day; de—— en—— , from day to day.

diamante, m., diamond.

diario, -a, daily.

diario, m., newspaper.

dibujo, m., drawing.

diciembre, m., December.

diez, ten.

diferencia, f., difference.

difícil, m. and f., difficult.

diligente, m. and f., diligent.

diligentemente, diligently, hard (section 49).

dinero, m., money.

Dios, m., God.

dirigirse, to turn (section 113).

discípulo, -a, pupil.

disgusto, m., annoyance, vexation.

disposición, f., disposition, disposal.

distancia, f., distance.

distinguido, -a, distinguished.

divertirse, to amuse oneself, have a good time, enjoy oneself.

doblar, to double, turn (section 113).

doce, twelve.

dolor, m., pain, grief, sorrow.

dolorcillo, m., a little pain.

dormir, to sleep; —se, to go to sleep.

dos, two.

dulce, m. and f., sweet.

dulces, m. pl., sweets, candy.

duro, -a, hard (section 49).

duro, m., dollar.


¡ea! come!

echar, to throw, to put out (section 119).

echar de menos, to miss (section 55).

edad, f., age.

efecto, m., effect.

egoísmo, m., egoism, selfishness.

ejercicio, m., exercise.

ejército, m., army.

el, m., the.

él, he.

Elisa, Elise, Eliza.

ella, she, her.

embelesado, -a, charmed, delighted.

empeñarse en, to insist upon.

empezar, to begin.

empleado, -a, employé.

empresa, f., undertaking; company (commercial or industrial).

en, in, on.

encaje, m., lace.

encantador, -a, charming, delightful.

encuentro, m., meeting.

enfadado, -a, angry, vexed, annoyed.

enfermedad, f., illness, sickness.

enfermo, -a, ill; as noun, invalid.

engañar, to deceive, take in; —se, to be deceived, be mistaken.

enojado, -a, annoyed, vexed.

ensenada, f., bay.

entenderse, to understand one another, agree.

entero, -a, entire, whole; días or meses—s, days or months at a time.

entierro, m., funeral.

entrar, to enter.

entregar, to deliver, hand over to.

enviar, to send.

equipaje, m., baggage.

equivocarse, to make a mistake, be mistaken.

erial, m., uncultivated land.

errar, to err.

escalera, f., stairs.

escaparse, to escape, get away (section 16).

esclavitud, f., slavery.

esclavo, -a, slave.

escondido, -a, hidden.

escribir, to write.

escrito: por—— , in writing.

escuchar, to listen, listen to.

ese, esa, that (demons. adj.); ése, ésa (demons, pron.).

eso, that (neut. demons. pron.); a—— de (in time expressions), a little after.

espacio, m., space.

espantoso, -a, frightful.

español, -a, Spanish, Spaniard.

espejo, m., mirror.

esperanza, f., hope.

esperar, to hope, wait, expect.

espíritu, m., spirit.

esposo, -a, husband, wife.

espuela, f., spur.

esquina, f., corner (exterior angle; see rincón).

estación, f., season, station.

estado, m., state.

estar, to be (section 1).

este, esta, this (demons. adj.); éste, ésta (demons. pron.).

esto, this (neut. demons. pron.).

estorbar, to disturb, put out (section 118).

estrella, f., star.

estudiar, to study.

estudio, m., study.

evitar, to avoid, help (section 27).

exclamar, to exclaim.

exclusivamente, exclusively.

existir, to exist.

éxito, m., outcome, success.

explicar, to explain.

extender, to extend, put out (section 119).

extranjero, -a, strange, stranger, foreign, foreigner.

extrañar, to wonder (section 103).


falta, f., lack, need; hacer—— a, to need, want.

faltar (a), to need, want (section 65, 98).

familia, f., family.

fatiga, f., fatigue.

favor, m., favor; please (section 67).

fe, f., faith.

felicitar, to congratulate.

feliz, m. and f., happy.

ferroviario, -a, pertaining to railroads.

fiar, to trust.

fiesta, f., holiday.

fievre, f., fever.

fin, m., end, conclusion; al—— , at last; por—— , finally.

flaco, -a, thin.

flor, f., flower.

fortuna, f., fortune.

fósforo, m., match.

frío, m., cold; hacer—— , to be cold (weather); tener—— , to be cold (persons).

fruta, f., fruit.

fuego, m., fire; pegar—— a, to set fire to.

fuerte, m. and f., strong.

fuerza, f., strength.


gana, f., desire; tener—s de (with infin.), to feel like.

ganar, to earn.

gato, m., cat.

generoso, -a, generous.

genio, m., genius, talent.

gente, f., people.

gimnasio, m., gymnasium.

gimnástico, -a, gymnastic.

gitano, -a, gipsy.

glorioso, -a, glorious.

gordo, -a, fat.

gozarse, to rejoice, enjoy.

gracia, f., favor, jest, joke.

gracias, f. pl., thanks.

gramática, f., grammar.

grande, m. and f., large.

grupo, m., group.

guante, m., glove.

guapo, -a, pretty, charming.

guardar, to keep, put away (section 34, 119).

guisar, to cook, stew.

gustar, to like (section 60).

gusto, m., pleasure.


haber, to have (section 6); —— de, must (section 75).

hábil, m. and f., clever, skillful.

habitación, f., room.

habitar, to live, inhabit, occupy.

hablar, to speak, talk.

hacer, to make, do (section 125); —se, to become, grow (section 23).

hacia, toward (section 80).

hachazgo, m., blow with an ax or hatchet.

hada, f., fairy.

hallar, to find; —se, to be (section 1).

hambre, f., hunger; tener—— , to be hungry.

harina, f., flour.

hasta, until (prep.); even (section 80); —— que, until (conj.).

hay, there is, there are; —— que, one must, it is necessary (section 76).

hazaña, f., adventure, exploit.

heredar, to inherit.

heredero, -a, heir.

hermano, m., brother.

hierba: mala—— , f., weed.

hija, f., daughter.

hijo, m., son.

hombre, m., man; ¡—— de Dios! man alive!

hombro, m., shoulder.

honor, m., honor.

hora, f., hour, time (section 59).

hormiga, f., ant.

huele, see oler.

huelga, f., strike; declararse en—, to strike (section 121).

huerto, m., orchard.

humo, m., smoke.

húngaro, -a, Hungarian, gipsy.


idea, f., idea.

iglesia, f., church.

impedir, to hinder, prevent, keep (section 34).

importancia, f., importance.

importante, m. and f., important.

incendio, m., fire, conflagration.

inclinarse, to be inclined.

independencia, f., independence.

indisposición, f., illness.

individuo, m., individual, person.

inesperado, -a, unexpected, unhoped for.

injusto, -a, unjust.

insecto, m., insect.

inserto, -a, inserted, included.

insigne, m. and f., famous, celebrated.

instrumento, m., instrument.

inteligencia, f., intelligence.

intención, f., intention; tener la—, to mean (section 68).

intento, m., purpose, intention.

interés, m., interest.

interior, m., interior.

inútil, useless.

inundado, -a, inundated, flooded.

invertir, to invert, turn over (section 113).

investigar, to investigate, look into.

invitación, f., invitation.


jardín, m., garden.

jarro, m., pitcher, jug.

joven, m. and f., young person, young man, young woman.

juez, m., judge.

jugar, to play (section 63).

junto (-a) a, near to, next to.

justo, -a, just, right (section 74).

juzgar, to judge.


la, the, her.

lado, m., side.

ladrón, m., robber.

lámpara, f., lamp.

lancha, f., boat.

lanzar, to lance, throw.

lápiz, m., pencil.

largarse, to run away, "skip."

largo, -a, long.

lástima, f., pity.

lastimar, to hurt.

lavandera, f., laundress.

lavar, to wash.

le, him, you, to him, to you, to her.

lección, f., lesson.

lectura, f., reading.

leer, to read.

lengua, f., tongue.

león, m., lion.

lesión, f., lesion, wound.

levantarse, to get up (section 16).

ley, f., law (single statute).

libertad, f., liberty.

libra, f., pound.

libro, m., book.

ligero, -a, light, quick, slight.

limonada, f., lemonade.

limosna, f., alms.

limpio, -a, clean.

listo, -a, ready, quick.

literatura, f., literature.

lo, it, him.

loco, -a, crazy, mad.

lograr, to succeed, manage (section 79).

Londres, London.

longitud, f., length, longitude.

luego, later, afterwards; —— que, as soon as.

lugar, m., place; en primer—— , first of all; tener—— , to take place.

lujo, m., luxury.

luna, f., moon.

luz, f., light.


llamar, to call.

llano, -a, flat, smooth.

llave, f., key.

llegada, f., arrival.

llegar, to arrive.

llevar, to carry, take.

llorar, to cry, weep.

llover, to rain.


madre, f., mother.

madrugada, f., early morning; de—, early in the morning.

maestro, m., teacher.

mal, badly; bad (before mas. sing. nouns).

malicioso, -a, malicious, sharp.

malo, -a, bad, ill.

manantial, m., spring (of water).

manchar, to spot, blot.

manecita, f., little hand.

manera, f., manner, way (section 48).

mano, f., hand.

mantenerse, to keep (section 34).

manzana, f., apple.

mañana, f., morning; (as adv.), to-morrow.

máquina, f., machine.

maquinaria, f., machinery.

mar, m. and f., sea.

Marco, m., Mark (proper noun).

marcharse, to go away, leave (section 37).

marinero, m., sailor.

martes, m., Tuesday.

martillo, m., hammer.

más, more; no—— que, just (section 24).

mayor, m. and f., older, greater.

me, me, to me, for me.

mediano, -a, medium, mediocre, half-way.

medias, a, half-way, by halves.

médico, m., doctor.

medida: a—— que, in a measure as, as (section 96).

medio, -a, half (section 93); en—de, in the midst of.

mejor, m. and f., better.

mejorarse, to get better, improve.

memoria, f., memory; de—— , by heart.

memorialista, m., public letter writer.

menos, less; a—— que, unless; por lo—— , at least.

mentira, f., lie, untruth.

menudo, -a, often.

merecer, to merit, deserve.

mermar, to diminish.

mes, m., month.

mesa, f., table.

metido, -a, put, hidden.

método, m., method.

mi, my.

, me (with prep.).

miedo, m., fear; tener—— , to be afraid.

miel, f., honey.

mientras, while, as long as (section 12).

milla, mile.

millonario, -a, millionaire.

mimar, to pet, spoil.

mina, f., mine.

minero, m., miner.

mío, -a, mine.

mirar, to look (section 19).

¡mira! see here!

mismo, -a, same, very (section 62); lo—— da, it's all the same; it doesn't matter.

mitad, f., half (section 93).

modo, m., mode, manner, way (section 43).

mofarse (de), to mock at, make fun of (section 53).

mojar, to wet, soak.

molestar, to trouble, disturb, put out (section 119).

momento, m., moment.

montón, m., heap, pile.

moreno, -a, brown.

morir, to die.

motivo: con—— de, on the occasion of, because of.

movimiento, m., movement, motion.

mozo, -a, young man, young woman, waiter.

muchacha, f., girl.

muchacho, m., boy.

mucho, -a, much.

muebles, m. pl., furniture.

mujer, f., woman.

muerto, -a, dead.

mundo, m., world; todo el—— , everybody.

muro, m., wall.

música, f., music.


nacer, to be born.

nacional, m. and f., national.

nada, nothing; —— más que (de), nothing but, just (section 24).

narración, f., narrative, story.

naturaleza, f., nature.

necesario, -a, necessary.

necesitar, to need, want (section 98).

negro, -a, black.

nevar, to snow.

nieve, f., snow.

ningún, see ninguno.

ninguno, -a, no, not any, not one.

niñera, f., nurse-maid.

niño, -a, child.

no, no, not.

noción, f., notion, idea.

noche, f., night.

nodriza, f., nurse.

nombre, m., name.

norte, m., north.

nos, us, ourselves.

nosotros, -as, we, us (with prep.).

notar, to notice, note.

noticia, f., notice, news.

nuestro, -a, our.

nuevo, -a, new.

número, m., number.

nunca, never.


obedecer, to obey.

obra, f., work (accomplished; as, the works of an author; see trabajo).

obrero, m., workman.

obscuridad, f., darkness.

obscuro, -a, dark.

observar, to observe, notice.

ocultarse, to hide oneself.

ocupación, f., occupation.

ocupado, -a, occupied, busy.

ocurrido: lo—— , what has happened.

ocho, eight.

ofender, to offend, insult.

ofrecer, to offer.

oído, m., hearing, ear (inner).

oír, to hear.

¡ojalá! (an interjection that expresses keen desire), I hope, I wish, would that, etc.

ojo, m., eye.

oler, to smell.

olvidarse, to forget.

operario, m., workman, operative.

oportunidad, f., opportunity.

opulencia, f., wealth, opulence.

oscurecer, to grow dark.

otro, -a, other, another.

ovación, f., ovation.


paciencia, f., patience.

padre, m., father.

padres, m. pl., parents.

pagar, to pay (section 111).

pago, m., pay, wages.

país, m., country (geographical division; see campo and patria).

paisano, m., countryman, villager.

pájaro, m., bird.

palabra, f., word.

palacio, m., palace.

pálido, -a, pale.

palomar, m., dovecote, pigeon house.

palomita, f., little dove, little pigeon.

palpar, to feel (section 43).

pan, m., bread.

panadero, m., baker.

papel, m., paper; hacer un—— , to play a part, act a rôle.

para, for (section 4); —— con, toward (section 81); —— que, in order that.

parado, -a, standing.

paraguas, m., umbrella.

parar, to stop.

parecer, to appear, seem, think (section 52).

parte, f., part.

partir, to depart, leave (section 37).

pasar, to pass (section 110); —se sin, to get along without, do without.

paseo, m., walk, promenade; dar un—— , to take a walk.

patitas: poner de—— en la calle, to dismiss, discharge, turn out.

patria, f., native country; see campo and país.

patrona, f., landlady.

Patros, f., proper noun, name of woman.

paz, f., peace.

pedir, to ask for, beg (section 3).

pegar, to strike (section 121); —fuego a, to set fire to.

pena, trouble; valer la—— , to be worth while.

pensamiento, m., thought.

pensar, to think (section 52).

peña, f., cliff.

Pepita, proper noun, f.

pequeño, -a, small, little (section 20).

perder, to lose.

perdido, m., loss.

perdonar, to pardon, excuse.

perezoso, -a, lazy.

perjudicial, m. and f., prejudicial, harmful.

permiso, m., permission.

pero, but (section 117).

perro, m., dog.

persona, f., person.

persuadir, to persuade, get (section 16).

pesar: a—— de, in spite of.

piano, m., piano.

pie, foot; a—— , on foot; de—— , standing.

piedad, f., pity, piety.

piedra, f., stone.

pintar, to paint.

placer, m., pleasure.

plan, m., plan, page (of newspaper).

planchar, to iron, press.

plataforma, f., platform.

playa, f., beach, shore.

plaza, f., square.

plazuela, f., small square.

pluma, f., pen.

plumafuente, f., fountain pen (also; plumatintero, m.).

pobre, m. and f., poor.

poco, -a, little (quantity; see section 20).

pocos, -as, few.

poder, to be able; a más no—— , to the utmost of one's ability, as hard as one can.

poner, to put (section 119); —se, to grow, put on (sections 23 and 119); —se de pie, to stand up (section 84).

por, by, through, in, for (section 4).

porque, because.

¿por qué? why?

posibilidad, f., possibility.

posible, m. and f., possible; lo—— , what is possible.

precio, m., price.

preguntar, to ask (section 3); —se, to wonder (section 103).

prendas de vestir, f. pl., clothes.

presentarse, to appear (section 77).

presente, m. and f., present.

presidente, m., president.

prestar, to lend.

primero, -a, first.

primo, -a, cousin.

principiar, to begin.

prisa, f., haste; tener—— , estar de—— , to be in a hurry.

problema, m., problem.

proclamar, to proclaim, publish.

procurar, to try.

producir, to produce.

profesor, m., teacher, professor.

profundizar, to go deeply into a thing or a matter, dig deeper.

prometer, to promise.

promovido, -a: ser—— , to pass, be promoted (section 110).

pronto, soon, quickly.

pronto, -a, ready, quick.

propagado, -a, propagated.

propio, -a, own.

proseguir, to continue.

prospero, -a, prosperous, fortunate.

protegido, -a, protégé.

próximo, -a, next.

prudencia, f., prudence.

publicar, to publish, give out (section 50).

público, -a, public.

pueblo, m., town, village.

puerta, f., door.

pues, well (section 30), then, for (conj.).

puesto, -a, on (section 119); —— que, since (section 9).

pulgada, f., inch.

punto, m., point; en—— , exactly (with time expressions).

puro, m. and f., pure.


que, what, that, who, which, whom.

¿qué? what?

quebrar, to break.

quedar, to remain, be left (section 37); —se con, to keep (section 34).

quedo, -a, quiet, quietly; -ito, -a, very quietly.

querer, to love, wish, want (section 98).

quien, who.

¿quién? who?

quieto, -a, quiet.

quince, fifteen; —— días, two weeks, a fortnight.

quitar, to take away; —se, to take off (section 106); —se de en medio, to get out of the way.


rabioso, -a, rabid, mad.

raro, -a, rare.

rato, m., while.

razón, f., reason, right (section 75).

rebelde, m., rebel.

recepción, f., reception.

recibir, to receive, get.

recién, recently (form used only to modify past participle).

recoger, to pick up, gather together.

recompensar, to recompense, make up for (section 53).

recordar, to remember, remind of.

recuperar, to recuperate.

región, f., region.

regla, f., rule.

regresar, to return, come back.

reina, f., queen.

reír, to laugh.

reloj, m., watch, clock.

remedar, to imitate, take off (section 107).

remedio, m., remedy; no hay—— , it can't be helped.

remendar, to mend.

remoto, -a, remote.

rendir, to give up (section 50).

renunciar, to renounce, give up (section 50).

reñir, to quarrel.

repente: de—— , suddenly, all at once.

reposo, m., repose, rest.

reprender, to censure, scold.

representación, f., performance.

república, f., republic.

resolver, to resolve, make up one's mind.

respeto a, with regard to.

retardar, to retard, keep back (section 34).

retener, to keep (section 34).

retirar, to retire, take back (section 106).

retractar, to retract, take back (section 106).

retraso: con—— , late.

reunión, f., meeting.

revista, f., magazine.

revolver, to turn (section 113).

rey, m., king.

rezar, to pray.

rico, -a, rich.

rincón, m., corner (inside angle; see esquina).

río, m., river.

risa, f., laughter.

robar, to steal.

roca, f., rock.

rogar, to ask (section 3).

rojo, -a, red.

rollo, m., roll.

ropa, f., clothes.

rostro, m., face.

roto, -a, broken, torn.

rueda, f., wheel.

ruido, m., noise.


saber, to know (section 14).

sabio, -a, wise.

sacar, to take out (section 107).

saco, m., sack, bag.

sacrificar, to sacrifice.

sacrificio, m., sacrifice.

sala, f., room, living-room.

salir, to go out, leave (section 37).

saltar, to leap, spring.

salud, f., health.

salvar, to save (section 92).

salvo y sano, safe and sound.

santo, -a, saint.

sargento, m., sergeant.

satisfacer, to satisfy.

satisfecho, -a, satisfied.

sastre, m., tailor.

se, self (reflexive pronoun of the third person, also of the second person formal); also used as pers. pron., 2nd and 3rd pers., ind. obj., before lo, la, los, las.

sed, f., thirst.

seguida: en—— , immediately, at once.

según, according to.

seguro, -a, sure, certain.

semana, f., week.

sembrar, to sow.

sencillez, f., simplicity.

sencillo, -a, simple.

sentar mal a, to disagree with (physically).

sentarse, to sit down (section 84).

sentir, to be sorry, feel (section 43).

señas, f. pl., directions, address.

señor, m., gentleman, sir, Mr.

señora, lady, madam, Mrs.

señorita, f., young lady, Miss.

séptimo, -a, seventh.

ser, to be (section 1).

serio, -a, serious.

servir, to serve; —— de, to serve as; —— para, to do for, be good for (section 125).

si, if.

, yes, self (used for se with a prep.).

siempre, always, ever; para—jamás, for ever and ever.

silla, f., chair.

sillón, m., armchair.

sin, without (prep.); —— que, without (conj.; section 69).

sino, except, but (section 117).

siquiera, even (section 80).

sírvase, please (section 67).

situado, -a, situated.

sobrar, to be left over, be superfluous, be too much.

sobre, m., envelope.

sobre, over, above, on (prep.).

sobriedad, f., sobriety.

sobrino, m., nephew.

social, m. and f., social.

sociedad, f., society.

sofocante, m. and f., suffocating.

sol, m., sun.

solamente, only (section 71).

solas: a—— con, alone with (section 72).

soldado, m., soldier.

soler, to be wont, be accustomed.

solito, -a, all alone, entirely alone.

solo, -a, alone (section 72).

sólo, only (section 71), just (section 24).

sombra, f., shade, shadow.

sombrero, m., hat.

sonar, to ring (section 116).

sonrisa, f., smile.

soplar, to blow.

soportar, to bear, endure, stand (section 85).

sordo, -a, deaf.

sorprender, to surprise.

sospechar, to suspect.

su, his, her, your, their.

subir, to go up (section 10), take up (section 107).

subsuelo, m., subsoil.

suceder, to happen, succeed (section 79).

suelen, see soler.

sueño, m., sleep; tener—— , to be sleepy.

sufrir, to bear, suffer, stand (section 85).

suma, f., sum.

supuesto: por—— , of course.

suyo, -a, his, hers, yours, theirs.


tabaco, m., tobacco.

tacto, m., touch.

tal, m. and f., such; —— vez, perhaps; ¿qué—? what's ... like? (section 61).

talento, m., talent.

también, too, also.

tampoco, either, neither (section 99 and 100).

tan, so (section 33).

tantito, slightly, rather, a little bit (section 20).

tanto, -a, as much, so much (section 33 and 96).

tardar, to be long in (section 12).

tarde, f., afternoon.

tarde, m. and f., late.

tarjeta, f., card; —— postal, post card.

, m., tea.

te, (pron.) thyself, thee, you.

teatro, m., theater.

tela, f., cloth.

telefonar, to telephone.

teléfono, m., telephone.

temer, to fear, be afraid.

temperatura, f., temperature.

tempestad, f., tempest, storm.

temprano, early.

terminar, to end.

tía, f., aunt.

tiempo, m., time (section 59).

tierra, f., earth, land.

tinta, f., ink.

tirano, -a, tyrant.

tiro, m., shot.

tocar, to touch, play (section 64); concern.

tocino, m., bacon.

todavía, yet, still.

todo, -a, all (section 46).

tomar, to take (section 107).

tonto, -a, foolish, silly.

topo, m., mole.

trabajar, to work.

trabajo, m., work.

traducción, f., translation.

traer, to bring, get (section 16).

traje, m., suit, clothes.

transcurrir, to pass (section 110).

tranvía, m., street car.

tras, behind, after (section 26).

trasnochar, to sit up all night, spend a sleepless night.

tratar, to treat.

tremendo, -a, tremendous.

tren, m., train.

tres, three.

trigo, m., wheat.

triste, m. and f., sad.

trocar, to exchange.

tu, thy.

, thou.


último, -a, last (of a series).

un, see uno.

único, -a, only (section 71).

un(o), -a, one (section 103).

usted, you.

utilidad, f., use, usefulness.


vacio, -a, empty.

valer, to be worth.

valor, m., valor.

vanidad, f., vanity.

¡vamos! come!

vano, -a, vain.

¡vaya! come! well! why! there! (section 56).

vecino, -a, neighbor.

vehículo, m., vehicle.

veinte, twenty.

veinticinco, twenty-five.

velo, m., veil.

velocidad, f., speed; a toda—— , at full speed.

vencer, to conquer, overthrow.

venda, f., bandage.

vender, to sell.

venir, to come.

venta, f., inn, tavern.

ventana, f., window.

ventanilla, f., small window.

ver, to see (section 93).

verdad, f., truth.

verificarse, to take place (section 107).

vestido, m., dress.

vestir, to dress, wear; —se, to get dressed.

vez, f., time (section 122).

viaje, m., journey.

victoria, f., victory, Victoria (proper noun).

vida, f., life.

viejo, -a, old, old man, old woman.

viento, m., wind.

villano, -a, evil, wicked.

violín, m., violin.

visita, f., visit, visitor.

visitar, to visit, call upon.

visto: por lo—— , apparently.

viuda, f., widow.

vivir, to live.

voluntad, f., will, way (section 48).

volver, to turn (section 113); —a (followed by the infin.), to do something again.

voz, voice.

vuelta, f.: dar una—— , to take a walk; estar de—— , to be back; dar—s a, to turn (section 113).


y, and.

ya, already; —— que, since (section 9); —— no, no longer (section 12); —— que no, even, if not (section 79).

yo, I.


zoológico, -a, zoölogical.


A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y


able, to be, poder.

about, de, acerca de (concerning); cerca de, más o menos (nearly, approximately) (section 41).

above, arriba, sobre; —— all, sobre todo, ante todo.

abroad, al extranjero, en el extranjero.

absence, ausencia, f.

absolutely, absolutamente.

absurdity, absurdo, m.

accident, accidente, m.; desgracia, f.

accord: in—— with, de acuerdo con.

according to, según.

account: on—— of, a causa de, por (section 101).

acquaintance: to make the—— of, conocer.

acquainted with, to be, conocer.

across, al otro lado de.

act, obrar, portarse (to behave).

admire, to, admirar.

advantage of, to take, aprovecharse de.

advice, consejo, m.

advise, to, aconsejar.

affair, asunto, m.

afraid, to be, tener miedo.

after, tras, después de (section 26).

afternoon, tarde, f.

afterwards, después.

again, otra vez, de nuevo, volver a, with infinitive.

against, contra.

age, edad, f.

ago, hace, ha (the first precedes, the second follows, the expression of time; hace is used when definite time is expressed, ha when the time is indefinite).

agree with, to, sentar bien.

air, aire, m.

alarm, to, alarmar.

alive, vivo,-a; man—! ¡hombre!

all, todo,-a; —— of a sudden, de repente (section 46).

almost, casí.

alone, solo,-a (section 72).

aloud, en alta voz.

already, ya.

also, también.

although, aunque.

among, entre.

amused, to be, divertirse.

an, un, una.

and, y.

angel, ángel, m.

anger, ira, cólera, f.; enojo, m.

animal, animal, m.

another, otro,-a.

answer, to, contestar, responder.

answer, contestación, f.

anxious, ansioso,-a.

any, algún, alguno,-a.

apparently, a lo visto, según parece, según parecía.

appear, to, aparecer, parecer, dejarse ver (section 78).

appearance, to put in, dejarse ver.

appreciate, to, estimar, apreciar.

approach, to, acercarse.

Argentine, argentino,-a.

arm, brazo, m.

armchair, sillón, m.; butaca, f.

army, ejército, m.

arrive, to, llegar.

as, como (section 96).

ashamed, to be, tener vergüenza.

ask, to, preguntar, pedir, rogar (section 3).

asleep, to be, estar dormido,-a; to be sleepy, tener sueño.

at, a, en; —— once, en seguida; to be—— (to attend), asistir a.

attention, atención, f.

aunt, tía, f.

author, autor,-ra.

automobile, automóvil, m.

avoid, to, evitar, prevenir.

aware, a sabiendas; to be—— , saber.

away, to be, estar ausente. (This word should generally be looked for in connection with the verb with which it is used, as it is in Spanish usually included in the verb; as, marcharse, to go—— ; llevarse, to take—— , etc.)


bad, malo,-a.

back, to be, estar de vuelta. (Ordinarily it is best to look for this word under the verb with which it is used; as, to give—, devolver; to go—— , volver, etc.)

bag, saco, m.

baggage, equipaje, m.

baker, panadero, m.

ball (dance), baile, m.

bandit, bandito, m.; bandolero, m.

bank, banco, m.; —note, billete de banco.

banquet, banquete, m.

basket, cesto, m.; cesta, f.

be, to, estar, ser (section 1).

beautiful, hermoso,-a; bello,-a.

because, porque, a causa de, por (section 101).

become, to, ponerse (to grow); sentar bien (to suit).

bed, cama, f.; to go to—— , acostarse.

bee-hive, colmena, f.

before, antes, ante, delante de, antes que (section 13).

beg, to, pedir, rogar.

beggar, pordiosero,-a; mendigo,-a.

behind, atrás, atrasado,-a; detrás de.

believe, to, creer.

bell, campana, f.; campanilla, f.

belong, to, pertenecer.

below, abajo.

best, el or la mejor; más (as adverb).

better, mejor, m. and f.

bicycle, bicicleta, f.

big, grande, m. and f.

bill, cuenta, f.

bird, pájaro, m.

birthday, (día de) cumpleaños, m.

bit, poquito (a small quantity); tanto, tantito (to a slight degree).

bite, to, morder.

blame, culpa, f.; to be to—— , tener la culpa.

blind, ciego,-a.

blow, to, soplar.

blow with hatchet, hachazo, m.; —— with whip, latigazo, m.

blue, azul, m. and f.

boat, bote, m.; lancha, f.

book, libro, m.

bookcase, estante, m.

born, to be, nacer.

both, ambos,-as; el uno (la una) y el otro (la otra); los or las dos.

bother, to, molestar.

bottle, botella, f.

box, cajón, m.; caja, f.

boy, muchacho, m.

bread, pan, m.

break, to, romper, quebrar.

breakfast, desayuno, m.; almuerzo, m.

bring, to, traer.

brother, hermano, m.

brown, moreno,-a.

building, edificio, m.

burn, to, quemar.

business, comercio, m.; negocio, m.

busy, ocupado,-a.

but, pero, sino (section 116).

butter, mantequilla, f.

buy, to, comprar.

by, por, de.


call, to, llamar.

can, present tense of poder (section 115).

candy, dulces, m. pl.

capable, capaz, m. and f.

cape (geographical), cabo, m.

captain, capitán, m.

car (auto), automóvil, m.

card, tarjeta, f.

care of, to take, cuidar; take—! ¡cuidado!

careful, cuidadoso,-a.

carelessness, descuido, m.

cash, dinero, m.; to pay—— , pagar al contado.

casino, casino, m. (a social club).

cast down, to, abatir.

catch, to, coger.

cause, to, causar.

cause, causa, f.

cat, gato, m.

Catalonian, Catalán,-a (native of Catalonia, Spanish Cataluña).

cease, to, cesar, dejar de.

certainly, ciertamente, por cierto, por supuesto (section 56 b).

chain, cadena, f.

chair, silla, f.; arm—, sillón, m.; butaca, f.

change, cambio, m.

change, to, cambiar.

charge of, to take, cuidar, tomar a su cargo.

charmed, embelesado,-a.

charming, encantador,-a; simpático,-a.

cheap, barato,-a.

child, niño,-a.

choose, to, escoger.

church, iglesia, f.

cite, to, citar.

city, ciudad, f.

class, clase, f.

clean, to, limpiar.

clean, limpio,-a.

clear up, to, aclarar.

close, to, cerrar.

close to, cerca de, junto (-a) a.

clothes, ropa, f.; prendas de vestir.

coal, carbón, m.

coat, chaqueta, f.; rain—, impermeable, m.; over—, abrigo, m.

coffee, café, m.

coin, moneda, f.

cold, frío,-a; to be—— , tener frío (persons); to be—— , hacer frío (weather); to take—— , resfriarse, coger un resfriado.

color, color, m.

come, to, venir.

committee, comisión, f.

companion, compañero,-a.

company, compañía, f.; to keep one—— , hacer compañía a uno.

compartment, compartamento, m.

compel, to, compeler.

conduct, conducto, m.

confess, to, confesar.

confident, confiado,-a.

congenial, simpático,-a.

congregate, to, congregar.

conqueror, conquistador, m.

conscience, conciencia, f.

consent, to, consentir (en).

contain, to, contener.

continue, to, continuar, seguir.

cook, to, cocinar, guisar.

cook, cocinero,-a.

cool, fresco,-a.

corner, esquina, rincón (section 85).

corridor, corredor, m.; pasillo, m.

cost, to, costar.

could, past tenses and subjunctive of poder (section 115).

counter, contador, m.

country, país, m. (geographical division); campo, m. (opposed to city); native—— , patria.

course, of, por supuesto, ¡cómo no! ya lo creo (section 56 (b)).

cowardly, cobarde, m. and f.

crazy, loco,-a.

creditor, acreedor,-ra.

crops, mieses, f. pl.

cruelly, cruelmente.

cry, to, llorar (to weep); gritar (to call out).

curious, curioso,-a.

cut, to, cortar.


daily, diario,-a; (adv.), diariamente.

daily (newspaper), diario, m.

damage, daño, m.

dark, obscuro,-a.

darkness, obscuridad, f.

daughter, hija, f.

dawn, amanecer, m.; alba, f.

day, día, m.; —— after to-morrow, pasado mañana.

daybreak, amanecer, m.

dead, muerto,-a.

dear, querido,-a (term of affection); caro,-a (expensive).

deceive, to, engañar.

declare, to, declarar.

deep, hondo,-a.

deer, ciervo, m.

defend, to, defender.

depart, to, partir.

depths, profundidad, f.

describe, to, describir.

desert, to, abandonar.

deserted, desierto,-a.

deserve, to, merecer.

desirous, to be, tener ganas.

dessert, postre, m.

determine, to, determinar.

devoted to, to be, estar dedicado (-a) a.

diamond, diamante, m.

dictionary, diccionario, m.

die, to, morir.

difficult, difícil, m. and f.

difficulty, dificultad, f.

dine, to, comer.

dining-room, comedor, m.

dinner, comida, f.; —— time, la hora de comer.

direction, dirección, f.

dirty, sucio,-a.

disagree, to, sentar mal a (physical).

disappear, to, desaparecer.

disappointment, chasco, m.

discover, to, descubrir.

dismiss, to, despedir.

disposal, disposición, f.

distance, distancia, f.

distress, desgracia, f.; aflicción, f.

do, to, hacer, servir (section 125).

doctor, doctor, m.; médico, m.

dog, perro, m.

dollar, dólar, m.; duro, m.; peso, m.

door, puerta, f.

doorway, puerta, f.

doubt, duda, f.; there is no—— , no cabe duda.

down, abajo. (Also often included in the meaning of the verb with which it is used; as, to take—— , to pull—— , bajar; to run—— , bajar corriendo; to put—— , to jot—— , apuntar, etc.)

dozen, docena, f.

dragon, dragón, m.

draw, to, tirar (to pull); dibujar (to outline, sketch).

drawing, dibujo, m.

dream, to, soñar.

dress, vestido, m.

dress, to, vestir.

driver, cochero, m.; chauffeur, m.

drop, to, dejar caer (let fall); caer (to fall).

dust, polvo, m.

duty, deber, m.


each, cada uno, (-a).

ear, oído, m. (inner ear); oreja, f. (outer ear).

early, temprano,-a.

earn, to, ganar.

earth, tierra, f.

earthquake, terremoto, m.

eat, to, comer.

egg, huevo, m.

eight, ocho.

either, o; o el (la) uno (-a) o el (la) otro (-a); tampoco (section 99).

electric, eléctrico,-a.

else, más; or—— , si no.

employé, empleado,-a.

encircle, to, rodear.

engine, locomotora, f.; máquina, f.

English, inglés,-a.

enjoy, to, gozarse en, gozar (en).

enough, bastante.

enter, to, entrar.

erect, to, erigir, edificar.

eruption, erupción, f.

escape, to, escaparse.

esteem, estimación, f.

even, aun, hasta, siquiera (section 80).

evening, tarde, f.

ever, jamás, nunca (section 109).

everybody, todo el mundo.

everything, todo.

evident, evidente, m. and f.

evil, malo,-a; villano,-a.

exactly, justo, exacto, exactamente, en punto (when naming the hour).

examination, examen, m.

example, ejemplo, m.

exercise, ejercicio, m.

excited, to get, animarse.

exclusively, exclusivamente.

expect, to, esperar.

experience, experiencia, f.

expert, experto,-a; experimentado,-a.

explain, to, explicar.

eye, ojo, m.


face, cara, f.

fact, hecho, m.

factory, fábrica, f.

fail, to, faltar, dejar de.

faith, fe, f.

fall, to, caer.

fault, culpa, f.; to be one's—— , tener la culpa.

family, familia, f.

famous, famoso,-a; insigne, m. and f.

farm, hacienda, f.

father, padre, m.

fatigue, fatiga, f.

fear, to, temer.

fear, temor, m.

fearful, terrible, m. and f.; atroz, m. and f.

feel, to, sentir, palpar, tocar (section 43).

feeling, sentimiento, m.

fever, fiebre, f.

few, pocos,-as.

finally, al fin, por fin.

fine: some—— day, un buen día.

find, to, hallar, encontrar; to—out, saber, llegar a saber.

fire, fuego, m.; to set—— to, pegar fuego a.

fireman, bombero, m.

first, primero,-a; —— of all, en primer lugar, antes.

five, cinco.

fixed, fijado,-a.

flame, llama, f.

flooded, inundado,-a.

floor, suelo, m.

flower, flor, f.

fluently, corrientemente.

folks, little, los chicos, la gente menuda.

follow, to, seguir.

fond of, to be, tener afición a, querer.

fool, tonto,-a.

foolish, tonto,-a.

foot, pie, m.

for, por, para (section 40).

foreign, extranjero,-a.

forget, to, olvidar, olvidarse de.

forgive, to, perdonar.

fork, tenedor, m.

forty, cuarenta.

fountain pen, plumafuente, f.; plumatintero, m.

four, cuatro.

franc, franco, m.

French, francés,-a.

friend, amigo,-a.

fruit, fruta, f.

full, lleno,-a; at—— speed, a todo escape, a todo correr.

fully, del todo.

fun, diversión, f.; burla, f.; to make—— of, burlarse de.

funeral, entierro, m.


garden, jardín, m.

general, general, m.

general, general, m. and f. (adj.).

generally, generalmente; por lo general.

genius, genio, m.

gentleman, señor, m.; caballero, m.

get, to, obtener (section 16).

gipsy, gitano,-a.

girl, muchacha, f.

give, to, dar, entregar (section 50).

glad, to be, alegrarse.

glass, vaso, m. (for drinking); vidriero, m. (of window).

glove, guante, m.

go, to, ir (section 10).

God, Dios, m.

good, bueno,-a.

good-by, adiós.

good-for-nothing, que no vale nada.

governor, gobernador, m.

grandfather, abuelo, m.

grandmother, abuela, f.

great, grande, m. and f.

green, verde, m. and f.

groan, gemido, m.

groan, to, gemir.

group, grupo, m.

grow, to, crecer, aumentar, criarse (section 23).

guide, guia, m.; —— book, guia, f.

gymnasium, gimnasio, m.

gymnastic, gimnástico,-a.


half, medio,-a.

half, mitad, f.

half-way, a medias; —— there, en medio (a la mitad) del camino.

hand, mano, f.

handle, manija, f.

happen, to, acaecer, acontecer, ocurrir; to—— to be, hallarse.

happiness, alegría, f.

happy, alegre, m. and f.; contento,-a.

hard, duro,-a; difícil, m. and f. (section 49).

hardly, apenas.

haste, to make, darse prisa.

hastily, aceleradamente.

hat, sombrero, m.

have, to, tener, haber, hacer (section 2).

he, él.

head, cabeza, f.

hear, to, oír, entender, sentir (section 73).

hearer, oyente, m. and f.

heart, corazón, m.; to know by—, saber de memoria.

heat, calor, m.

help, ayuda, f.

help, to, ayudar, asistir, amparar (section 27).

heir, heredero,-a.

her, su (poss. adj.); la, le (pers. pron.).

here, aquí, acá (section 29).

hide, to, esconder, ocultar.

high, alto,-a.

him, le (or lo).

himself, se, él mismo.

his, su, suyo,-a.

history, historia, f.

hit, to, pegar; —— against, dar contra.

hold, to, contener, detener, caber en (section 21).

holiday, día de fiesta, f.

home, a casa (with verb of motion); at—— , en casa.

honor, honor, m.

hope, to, esperar.

horse, caballo, m.

hot, caliente, m. and f.; to be—— , tener calor (persons); hacer calor (weather).

hour, hora, f.

house, casa, f.

how (interr.), ¿cómo? to know—— , saber.

how (excl.), ¡cómo! ¡cuán! ¡qué!

hundred, ciento; cien (before nouns).

hungry, to be, tener hambre.

hurry, to, darse prisa.

hurry, to be in a, tener prisa, estar de prisa.

hurt, to, lastimar, hacer daño a.

husband, marido, m.; esposo, m.


I, yo.

idea, idea, f.

if, si.

ill, malo,-a; enfermo,-a.

illness, enfermedad, f.

illustrated, ilustrado,-a.

imitate, to, imitar, remedar.

immediately, inmediatamente, en seguida, al momento.

importance, importancia, f.

important, importante, m. and f.

impossible, imposible, m. and f.

in, en, dentro de.

inch, pulgada, f.

inclined, to be, inclinar.

increase, to, aumentar.

indeed, ¿de veras? yes—— , ¡ya lo creo! ¡si por cierto! (section 54 (b)).

independence, independencia, f.

inform, to, hacer saber, enterar.

inherit, to, heradar.

initiate, to, iniciar, empezar.

injury, lesión, f.

ink, tinta, f.

inn, venta, f.; posada, f.

insist, to, empeñarse.

instead of, en lugar de.

instrument, instrumento, m.

insult, to, ofender.

intelligence, inteligencia, f.

interest, to, interesar.

interesting, interesante, m. and f.

internal, interior, m. and f.

interpreter, intérprete, m. and f.

invasion, invasión, f.; irrupción, f.

invitation, invitación, f.

invite, to, invitar.

it, lo, la, ello. (Omitted when used as subject.)

Italian, italiano,-a.


job, tarea, f.

journey, viaje, m.

joy, gozo, m.; alegría, f.

judge, juez, m.

just, justo,-a; nada más de or que, exactamente (section 24).


keep, to, guardar, quedarse con, seguir (section 34).

key, llave, f.

kind, amable, m. and f.

king, rey, m.

kiss, to, besar.

kitchen, cocina, f.

knife, cuchillo, m.

know, to, saber, conocer (section 14).


lace, encaje, m.

lady, señora, f.

lamp, lámpara, f.

landlady, patrona, f.

language, idioma, m.

large, grande, m. and f.

late, tarde.

lately, recientemente.

latter, the, éste, ésta.

last, último,-a; pasado,-a (section 89); —— night, anoche.

last, to, durar.

laugh, to, reír; to—— at, reírse de.

laughter, risa, f.

lay, to, poner.

lazy, perezoso,-a.

learn, to, aprender.

learned, sabio,-a.

least, menor, m. and f.; at—— , a lo menos, por lo menos.

leather, cuero, m.

leave, to, dejar, partir, salir (section 37).

left, izquierdo,-a.

left, to be, quedar, sobrar (section 37).

lemonade, limonada, f.

lend, to, prestar.

less, menos.

lesson, lección, f.

let, to, dejar (section 38).

letter, carta, f.

liberty, libertad, f.

library, biblioteca, f.

life, vida, f.

lift, to, alzar, levantar.

light, luz, f.

like, to, querer, gustar a (section 61).

like, como, cual (section 60).

lily, lirio, m.

lion, león, m.

listen, to, escuchar.

literature, literatura, f.

little, pequeño,-a; chico,-a; poco,-a, (section 20).

live, to, vivir.

living, vida, f.

living-room, sala, f.

lock, cerradura, f.

London, Londres.

long, largo,-a; —— time, mucho tiempo (section 12).

look, to, mirar, aparecer; —— for, buscar (section 19).

lose, to, perder.

loss, perdido, m.

lot of, a, mucho,-a,-os,-as.

love, to, amar, querer.

luxury, lujo, m.


machine, máquina, f.

machinery, maquinaria, f.

mad, rabioso,-a; loco,-a.

maid, criada, f.

make, to, hacer (section 53).

man, hombre, m.

manage, to, lograr, manejar.

many, muchos,-as (section 20).

masked (ball), de máscaras.

master, amo, m.; dueño, m.

material, materia, f.

matter, asunto, m.

matter, to, importar.

me, me, mí (with preposition).

mean, to, querer decir, tener la intención de (section 68).

means of, by, por medio de.

mediocre, mediano,-a.

meet, to, encontrar, dar con.

meeting, reunión, f.

member, miembro, m.; individuo, m.

memory, memoria, f.

method, método, m.

milk, leche, f.

millionaire, millonario,-a.

mind of, to put in, recordar a, hacer pensar en.

mine, mío,-a.

mine, mina, f.

miner, minero, m.

minute, minuto, m.

mirror, espejo, m.

miss, to, echar de menos, faltar, notar la falta de (section 55).

mistake, equivocación, f.; error, m.; falta, f.

mistake, to make a, equivocarse, hacer un error.

mistaken, to be, equivocarse.

mole, topo, m.

moment, momento, m.

money, dinero, m.

month, mes, m.

moon, luna, f.

more, más; —— and—— , cada vez más; no—— (longer), ya no; once ---- , otra vez.

morning, mañana, f.

mother, madre, f.

much, mucho,-a.

music, música, f.

must, haber de, deber, tener que (section 75).

my, mi; ¡vaya! (with exclamatory force).

myself, me, mismo,-a (section 88).


name, nombre, m.

narrative, narración, f.

narrow, estrecho,-a.

national, nacional, m. and f.

natural, natural, m. and f.

nature, naturaleza, f.

near, cerca de, junto (-a) a.

necessary, necesario,-a.

need, to, necesitar.

neighbor, vecino,-a.

neither, ni; ni el (la) uno (-a) ni el (la) otro (-a); tampoco (section 9).

nephew, sobrino, m.

never, nunca, jamás.

nevertheless, sin embargo.

new, nuevo,-a.

newly, recientemente, recién (before past participles).

news, noticias, f. pl.

newspaper, periódico, m.; diario, m.

next, próximo,-a; que viene.

night, noche, f.; at—— , de noche, por la noche; last—— , anoche.

nightfall, anochecer, m.

nightingale, ruiseñor, m.

night-watchman, sereno, m.

no, no.

nobody, nadie.

noise, ruido, m.

noon, medio día, m.

north, norte, m.

not, no; —— at all, de ningún modo, no hay de que (section 46).

note, to, notar, fijarse en.

nothing, nada.

notice, noticia, f.

now, ahora, ya (section 40); every—— and then, de vez en cuando.

number, número, m.

nurse-maid, niñera, f.


obey, to, obeir.

oblige, to, obligar a.

obliged to, to be, agradecer a.

observe, to, observar.

obtain, to, obtener.

occupy, to, ocupar.

occur, to, ocurrir, acaecer.

o'clock: it is one—— , es la una; it is two, three, four—— , son las dos, las tres, las cuatro.

of, de.

offer, oferto, m.

offer, to, ofrecer.

office, despacho, m. (place of business); oficio, m. (occupation).

often, a menudo, muchas veces.

old, viejo,-a; antiguo,-a.

oldest, mayor, m. and f.

on, en, sobre.

once, una vez; —— and for all, una vez y para siempre; at—, inmediatamente, en seguida; all at—— , de repente (suddenly); a la vez (all together).

one, un, uno,-a.

only, sólo, solamente, nada más que (section 71).

open, to, abrir.

open, abierto,-a.

opinion, opinión, f.; concepto, m.

opportunity, oportunidad, f.

or, o.

orchard, huerta, f.

order, to, mandar.

order to, in, para, para que, a fin de que.

organ, órgano, m.

other, otro,-a.

ought, deber.

our, nuestro,-a.

ourselves, nos, nosotros (-as) mismos (-as).

out, fuera. (It is best usually to look for this word in connection with the verb with which it is used, in which it is very often included; as, sacar, to take—— ; salir, to go—— ; apagar, to put—, etc.)

owe, to, deber.

own, propio,-a.

owner, dueño,-a.

ovation, ovación, f.

over, sobre; all—— , acabado,-a (finished); por todas partes (everywhere, in all directions).


pain, dolor, m.; little—— , dolorcillo.

paint, to, pintar.

painter, pintor, m.

pair, par, m.

pane, vidriero, m.

paper, papel, m.; news—, periódico, m.; diario, m.

pardon, to, perdonar.

parents, padres, m.

park, parque, m.

party, partido, m.; compañía, f.

pass, to, pasar (section 110).

past, pasado,-a.

patient, paciente, m. and f. (adj.); enfermo,-a.

patience, paciencia, f.

Patros, proper name, f.

pay, to, pagar, ser provechoso,-a (section 111).

pay, pago, m.; sueldo, m.

peace, paz, f.

pen, pluma, f.

pencil, lápiz, m.

penknife, cortaplumas, m.

perhaps, tal vez, acaso.

people, gente, f.

perceive, to, percibir, ver.

permission, permiso, m.

person, persona, f.

piano, piano, m.

pick up, to, coger, recoger.

picture, cuadro, m.; pintura, f. (painting); retrato, m.; fotografía, f. (photograph).

piece, pedazo, m.

pitcher, jarra, f. (wide-mouthed); jarro, m. (narrow-mouthed).

pity, lástima, f.

place, lugar, m.; sitio, m.; to take—, tener lugar, verificarse.

plant, planta, f.

plate, plato, m.

platform, andén, m. (railway station); plataforma, f.

play, to, jugar (games); tocar (musical instruments); representar (dramas); to—— a part, hacer or desempeñar un papel.

play, drama, m.

please, to, agradar, contentar, querer (section 67).

pleasure, gusto, m.; placer, m.

pocket, bolsillo, m.

poor, pobre, m. and f.

portrait, retrato, m.

possess, to, poseer.

possession, posesión, f.; to take—— of, apoderarse de.

possible, posible, m. and f.

postcard, tarjeta postal, f.

postman, cartero, m.

post office, correo, m.

pound, libra, f.

power, poder, m.

practice, práctica, f.

practice, to, practicar.

preparation, preparación, f.; preparativo, m.

prepare, to, preparar.

presence, presencia, f.

present, presente, m. and f.; for the—— , a presente, al momento, por lo pronto.

present at, to be, asistir a.

president, presidente, m.

pretty, bonito,-a.

prevent, to, evitar.

price, precio, m.

prince, príncipe, m.

princess, princesa, f.

problem, problema, m.

procession, procesión, f.

profession, profesión, f.

professor, profesor,-ra.

promise, to, prometer.

propagate, to, propagar.

property, bienes, m. pl.

prove, to, probar; to—— to be, resultar ser.

provided that, con tal que.

province, provincia, f.

prudence, prudencia, f.

public, público,-a; —— letter writer, memorialista, m.

publish, to, publicar, dar a luz.

pupil, discípulo,-a; alumno,-a.

pure, puro,-a.

purse, bolsa, f.

put, to, poner (section 119).


quarrel, to, reñir.

quart, cuarta, f.

quarter, cuarto,-a.

queen, reina, f.

question, pregunta, f. (to be answered); cuestión, f. (to be discussed); to ask—— , hacer preguntas.

quick, pronto,-a; rápido,-a.

quickly, prontamente, rápidamente.

quiet, quieto,-a; quedo,-a.


railroad, ferrocarril, m.

rain, to, llover.

rain, lluvia, f.

rainbow, arco iris, m.

raincoat, impermeable, m.

rarely, raramente, raras veces.

rate, at any, de todos modos.

rather, algo, un tanto, un poco; —— than, más bien que.

read, to, leer.

ready, listo,-a.

rebel, rebelde, m.

receive, to, recibir.

reckless, descuidado,-a.

red, rojo,-a.

regard to, in, respeto a.

relative, pariente, m. and f.

remain, to, quedar.

remember, to, acordarse de.

remove, to, quitar, apartar.

rent, to, alquilar.

repeat, to, repetir.

republic, república, f.

rest, to, descansar.

respectable, respetable, m. and f.

rest, descanso, m.

return, to, volver (to come back); devolver (to give back).

revolution, revolución, f.

rich, rico,-a.

rid of, to get, deshacerse de.

right, derecho,-a; justo,-a; to be—— , tener razón, ser justo (section 74).

ring, to, tocar, sonar (section 116).

ripe, maduro,-a.

river, río, m.

road, camino, m.

robber, ladrón, m.

roll, rollo, m.

room, cuarto, m.; sala, f.; habitación, f.; to take up—— , ocupar lugar or espacio; there is—— , hay lugar.

rose, rosa, f.

rule, to, gobernar.

rule, regla, f.

run, to, correr.


sack, saco, m.

sacrifice, to, sacrificar.

sacrifice, sacrificio, m.

safe, seguro,-a; —— and sound, sano y salvo.

sailor, marinero, m.

saint, santo,-a; san (before masculine nouns).

sake of, for the, por.

same, mismo,-a.

satisfied, satisfecho,-a.

satisfy, to, satisfacer.

save, to, ahorrar, salvar (section 92).

say, to, decir.

scarcely, apenas.

scarf, velo, m.

school, escuela, f.

scold, to, reprender, reñir.

see, to, ver, comprender (section 93).

self, se, mismo,-a (section 88).

selfishness, egoismo, m.

sell, to, vender.

send, to, mandar, enviar.

sense, sentido, m.; inteligencia, f.

sentence, sentencia, f.; oración, m.

sergeant, sargento, m.

serious, serio,-a.

servant, criado,-a.

serve, to, servir.

set, to, poner.

sew, to, coser.

shade, sombra, f.

shadow, sombra, f.

shake hands, to, dar la mano a.

shall, expressed by the endings of the future tense (section 46).

share, to, compartir.

shine, to, brillar.

shock (earthquake), sacudida, f.

shoe, zapato, m.

shop (work), taller, m.

short, corto,-a.

shot, tiro, m.

shoulder, espalda, f.; hombro, m.

show, to, mostrar, enseñar, dejar ver.

shut, to, cerrar.

sickness, enfermedad, f.

sign, señal, m.

silver, plata, f.

simple, sencillo,-a.

simplicity, sencillez, f.

sin, pecado, m.

since, desde, desde que, ya que, puesto que (section 9).

sing, to, cantar.

single, solo,-a.

sir, señor.

sit, to, sentarse (section 84).

situated, situado,-a.

situation, situación, f.

six, seis.

sky, cielo, m.

slave, esclavo,-a.

slavery, esclavitud, f.

sleep, to, dormir; to go to—— , dormirse.

sleepy, to be, tener sueño.

slipper, chinela, f.; babucha, f.

small, pequeño,-a.

smell, to, oler; —— of, oler a.

smile, to, sonreír.

smile, sonrisa, f.

snow, to, nevar.

snow, nieve, f.

so, así, tan, conque (section 33).

soap, jabón, m.

sobriety, sobriedad, f.

social, social, m. and f.

soldier, soldado, m.

some, unos,-as. (Often omitted in Spanish when used in the partitive sense; so, I have—— money, yo tengo dinero.)

something, algo.

son, hijo, m.

song, canción, f.

soon, pronto.

sorry, to be, sentir.

sour, agrio,-a.

south, sur, m.

southern, sud, m. and f., del sur.

Spain, España, f.

Spanish, español,-a.

spare, to, tener de sobra, sobrar, dar.

speak, to, hablar.

speaker, el (la) que habla.

speed, at full, a todo escape, a todo correr.

spend, to, gastar.

spill, to, derramar.

spiritual, espiritual, m. and f.

spoil, to, mimar (children).

spoon, cuchara, f.

spur, espuela, f.

square, plaza, f., little—— , plazuela, f.

stairs, escalera, f.

stand, to, estar en pie, ponerse de pie, estar parado,-a (section 85).

start, to, ponerse en marcha, marcharse, poner en movimiento (section 123).

station, estación, f.

stay, to, quedar.

stop, to, parar, cesar, dejar de.

story, cuento, m.

strength, fuerza, f.

strike, to, pegar, declarse en huelga (section 121).

string, cuerda, f.

succeed, to, suceder, tener éxito, lograr a (section 79).

suffer, sufrir.

sum, suma, f.

sun, sol, m.

suspicion, sospecho, m.


table, mesa, f.

tablecloth, mantel, m.

tailor, sastre, m.

take, to, tomar, llevar, coger (section 107).

tale, cuento, m.

talent, talento, m.

talk, to, hablar.

tea, té, m.

teacher, maestro,-a.

tear down, to, derribar.

telephone, to, telefonar.

telephone, teléfono, m.

tell, to, decir, contar, producir efecto (section 90).

Telmo, proper name, m.

ten, diez.

tennis, tenis, m.

terrible, terrible, m. and f.

that, que (rel. pron. and conj.), aquel, aquella; ese, esa (demons. adj.); aquél, aquélla; eso (demons. pron.).

the, el, la, los, las.

theater, teatro, m.

their, su, sus (adj.); suyo,-a (pron.).

them, los, las, les; ellos,-as (with prep.).

then, entonces.

there, allí, allá, ahí, ¡vaya! (section 21).

these, estos,-as (demons. adj.); éstos,-as (demons. pron.).

thin, delgado,-a.

thing, cosa, f.

think, to, pensar, creer, parecer (section 52).

thirsty, to be, tener sed.

thirteen, trece.

this, este, esta (adj.); éste, ésta (pron.).

those, aquellos,-as; esos,-as (adj.); aquéllos,-as; ésos,-as (pron.).

though, aunque.

thought, pensamiento, m.

thousand, mil, m.

three, tres.

through, por.

throw, to, echar, tirar.

ticket, billete, m.

time, tiempo, m.; vez, f.; hora, f. (section 59).

tire, to, cansar.

tired-out, cansado (-a) a más no poder.

to, a.

to-day, hoy.

together, juntos,-as.

to-morrow, mañana.

tongue, lengua, f.

to-night, esta noche.

too, demasiado, también.

torn, roto,-a.

torrents, to rain, llover a cántaros.

touch, to, tocar.

touch, tacto, m.

toward, hacia, para con (section 81).

town, pueblo, m.; ciudad, f.

toy, juguete, m.

train, tren, m.

tree, árbol, m.

tremendous, tremendo,-a.

tribe, caterva, f.

trouble, to, molestar, afligir.

trouble, pesar, m.

trunk, baúl, m.

trust, to, confiar, fiar.

truth, verdad, f.

try, to, tratar de, procurar.

Tuesday, martes, m.

turn, to, volver, ponerse, dar vuelta a (section 113).

twelve, doce.

twenty, veinte.

twenty-five, veinticinco.

twice, dos veces.

two, dos.

type, tipo, m.; —— writer, máquina de escribir, f.

tyrant, tirano,-a.


umbrella, paraguas, m.

unable, to be, no poder.

uncle, tío, m.

understand, to, comprender, entender.

uneasy, inquieto,-a; intranquilo,-a.

unjust, injusto,-a.

unload, to, descargar.

until, hasta (prep.); hasta que (conjunction).

untruth, mentira, f.

up, arriba. (This word is in Spanish very often untranslatable, being included in the meaning of the verb with which it is used; as, to pick ---- , recoger; to look—— , buscar; to get—— , levantarse, etc.)

upside-down, de arriba abajo.

us, nos, nosotros,-as (with prep.).

use, to, usar, emplear, servirse de.

use, utilidad, f.

used to, to be, soler, acostumbrarse.

usual, usual, m. and f.; acostumbrado,-a.


vain, vanidoso,-a; in—— , en vano.

valise, maleta, f.

valor, valor, m.

vanity, vanidad, f.

vegetable, legumbre, f.; verdura, f.

vehicle, vehículo, m.

velvet, terciopelo, m.

very, muy (section 63).

victim, víctima, f.

village, aldea, f.; pueblo, m.

violin, violín, m.

visit, visita, f.

visit, to, visitar.

voice, voz, f.


wait, to, esperar.

wake, to, despertar; to—— up, despertarse.

walk, paseo, m.

walk, to, andar, caminar.

want, to, querer, necesitar (section 98).

war, guerra, f.

warm, to be, tener calor (persons); hacer calor (weather).

wash, to, lavar.

water, agua, f.

water, to, regar.

way, camino, m.; modo, m. (section 48).

we, nosotros,-as.

weak, débil, m. and f.

wealth, riqueza, f.; opulencia, f.

wear, to, llevar, vestir, tener puesto,-a.

weather, tiempo, m.

week, semana, f.

well, bien, pues (section 30).

well, pozo, m.

what, ¿qué? lo que (conj.); —— a! ¡qué! —— a lot of! ¡qué de! ¡cuántos,-as!

wheat, trigo, m.

wheel, rueda, f.

where, donde; —? ¿dónde?

whether, si.

while, to be worth, valer la pena.

whip, látigo, m.

white, blanco,-a.

who, ¿quién? el (la) cual; el (la) que; que.

whole, entero,-a; toda,-a.

whose, cuyo,-a; de quien.

whose? cúyo,-a; de quién.

why? ¿por qué?

why! ¡vaya! ¡toma! (section 56).

wide, ancho,-a.

widow, viuda, f.

will, expressed in the future tense endings or by querer (section 45).

will, voluntad, f.

win, to, ganar.

wind, viento, m.

window, ventana, f.

wise, sabio,-a.

wish, to, querer; I—— ¡ojalá! (when the wish is unrealizable at the moment).

witch, bruja, f.

with, con.

without, sin, sin que (section 69).

woman, mujer, f.

wonder, to, extrañarse, admirarse, preguntarse (section 103).

wont to, to be, soler, acostumbrarse.

word, palabra, f.

work, to, trabajar.

work, trabajo, m. (labor); obra, f. (accomplishment).

workman, operario, m.

worry, to, apurarse.

worst, peor, m. and f.

worth, to be, valer.

worthless, sin valor, que no vale nada.

would, expressed in conditional endings or by past tenses of querer (section 45).

written, escrito,-a.


yellow, amarillo,-a.

yesterday, ayer.

yet, todavía (temporal); aun (concessive).

yield, to, ceder.

you, usted, ustedes (abbreviated, Vd., Vds., Ud., Uds.); le, les, (obj. case).

young, joven, m, and f.; —— lady, señorita, f.

your, su.

yours, suyo,-a.


[1] Work is a good companion for hope.

[2] The day is for work, that is why (for that) there is light.

[3] Each one is as God has created him.

[4] Since everything passes away, let us enjoy everything while it lasts.

[5] While one is young there is always hope of bettering one's fortune.

[6] Now you see that one mustn't trust in dreams.

[7] One good thing is worth more than many mediocre ones.

[8] Look at the stars! They tell sweet tales, the stars, and keep one company.

[9] Fruits are eaten. One just smells the flowers.

[10] He who loves truth, trusts in God.

[11] When one is unwilling, two don't quarrel.

[12] God doesn't do things by halves.

[13] My wealth is simplicity; my luxury, sobriety; my rest, work.

[14] The man who is ashamed of being happy ought to walk on four feet.

[15] Law is God—or ought to be.

[16] To do good to the evil is to cast water into the sea.

[17] It is hard to save some one who does not want to be saved at all.

[18] I'm never afraid when I am doing my duty (what I ought to do).

[19] The learned in their vanity are wont to forget God.

[20] The mole doesn't see into what depths he's going, but a man does.

[21] Good music is like a spur to lazy ideas.

[22] In matters of faith in order to see clearly one must be blind.

[23] Valor must be in accord with prudence.

[24] When hands begin, tongues usually cease.

[25] Fear makes slaves, slavery makes rebels.

[26] Saints are found where least expected.

[27] Truth often comes out of falsehood.

[28] When duty speaks, I listen only to its voice.

[29] He who is preparing for a struggle, is not cast down by troubles.

[30] Let them say what they will, happiness is very cheap.

[31] He who lends to a friend loses money and friend.

[32] Liberty can never be defended by tyrants, nor propagated by slaves.

[33] When there is happiness everything is well done.

[34] What a gipsy can't do nobody on earth can do.

[35] Not to believe in anything is to be crazy.

[36] There is nothing in the world that is not good for something.

[37] Faith in a great idea is the life of the intelligence.

[38] It is better to fail through generosity than to succeed through selfishness.

[39] We don't need to be serious to be good.

[40] Where honor is dead there is no longer hope of life.

[41] Great hearts are for great undertakings.

[42] Untruth is always cowardly.

End of Project Gutenberg's Spanish Composition, by Edith J. Broomhall


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